10 of the Most Incredible Natural Phenomena on Earth

Natural Phenomena - Turquoise Ice Crystals in Lake Baikal, Russia

For millions of years, mother nature has been instrumental in injecting wonders into our planet. Theoretically, it would be impossible to convince someone that some of the breathtakingly fascinating natural phenomena exist, but they do indeed exist. Although nature can be untamed and brutal sometimes, the manifestation of its power also creates beauty on earth, making it an exciting place for humans to live. Locomoting stones, blood rain, everlasting lighting storms are some of the unusual, beautiful and incredibly marvelous phenomenon by the workings and power of nature. Here a list of ten of the most incredible natural phenomena that will take your breath away.

1. Catatumbo Lightning: The Everlasting Storm, Venezuela

Catatumbo Lightning: The Everlasting Storm, Venezuela

Weather conditions around the world contribute to natural phenomena that leave human beings witnessing them dumbfounded. The Catatumbo lighting, a powerful atmospheric phenomenon that occurs exclusively at the mouth of Catatumbo river where it pours into Lake Maracaibo is one of such. On average, the lightning occurs in 280 nights per year, and it lasts for around 10 hours per day at a frequency of 280 flashes per hour. This explains the names, “Everlasting lighting” and “the Beacon of Maracaibo.” The lightning flashes originate from the clouds that hang about 4 kilometers above, and it is so bright and intense that it is visible 250 miles away. Given it lasts 10 hours a night, there is constant illumination of Lake Maracaibo and the surrounding areas. Historically, the colonial soldiers used the light from the Catatumbo lightning to navigate the region at night.

Several scientists have endeavored to study the phenomenon at Catatumbo and determine its origin in vain. There are just speculations concerning the source of the storm. Melchor Centeno speculates that the source of the thunderstorm is the closed wind in the region. The second speculation by the University of Andes suggests that the lighting is caused by the presence of uranium that is believed to be in the bedrock. Andrew Zavrotsky speculates that the cold and worm current meeting in the region is the cause of the natural phenomenon. Therefore, this incredible natural phenomenon is scientifically unexplainable.[1]

2. The Great Blue Holes, Belize

The Great Blue Holes, Belize

The Great Hole is located at approximately 73 miles off the coast of Belize in the Caribbean Sea, strategically designated in the middle of the Lighthouse Reef. It is not only the deep blue sea but also the deep blue hole – the most significant natural formation of its kind. The enormous hole is an underwater sinkhole circular in shape, 410 feet deep and over 984 feats wide formed over 15,000 years ago when the sea water level was shallow and when the ocean began to rise. Its location in the reef makes it one of the great Barrier Reef Reserve system, a UNESCO (United Nation Educational, science, and cultural organization) world heritage site. Though there are another lesser, know Blue Holes in Belize such as the inland sinkhole located 12 miles south of Belmopan City right at the center of the country. The spot is on Hummingbird Highway making it a natural swimming pool, attracting both local and foreign tourists.

The Great Hole serves as a center of recreational activities such as scuba diving among others. It offers scuba divers an opportunity to venture into crystal clear water and explore the myriad marine life in the deep blue sea. Because of the lighting and the depth, the Great Blue Hole is the home of several rare species of marine life. The aquatic life species habituating in the great blue hole encompass the tropical fish, giant groupers, spectacular coral formations, nurse sharks, and a host of reef sharks such as Carcharhinus limbatus or the Blacktip sharks, and the Caribbean reef sharks. Great divers such as NASA scientist Glen Collinson describes it as “…the deepest, deep blue hole imaginable; A chasm that fell away deep into the deep, dark blue…”[2]

3. Auroras Borealis, Scandinavia & Northern Canada

Natural Phenomenon - Auroras Borealis, Scandinavia & Northern Canada

The auroras Borealis forms a spectacular display of light designated in the high latitude regions around the world like Antarctic or northern areas. Many have described the phenomena as the polar lights based on the areas that they are formed or displayed. Source of the auroras according to scientific perspective is the trajectory of the charged solar wind particles on the earth, where the precipitated protons and electrons are ironized to emit the spectacular lights with varying colors and magnanimity. The color and form are dependent on the speed of the precipitated particles. For instance, proton auroras form in the lower latitude emitting green colored lights.

The auroras light such as the ones that occur in the curtain arc builds bright and vivid light. It happens almost every year in the Scandinavia. The other form is the diffuse glow which is less visible especially with naked eyes. It is displayed under a varied of colors such as red, ultraviolet, yellow, green, pink, orange among others creating an incredible visual sight. The auroras are classified as either Aurora Australis (southern lights) and auroras Borealis (northern lights) displaying same features and simultaneously alternating over time.[3]

4. Lenticular Clouds

Lenticular Clouds

Lenticular clouds are described as altocumulus standing lenticularis, are the work of mother nature through atmospheric and climatic conditions creating one of the fascinating natural phenomena in the sky. The lenticular clouds are lens-shaped forms of cloud formed primarily at high altitudes such as mountains, highlands, and even on tall buildings. The phenomenal clouds are aligned at right angles to the direction of the wind in the region. The moisturized air blowing over the mountains or the high-altitude lands condenses to form the dramatic clouds that appear like lenticular lens-shaped clouds.

Amazingly, the lenticular clouds form at the crest of the waives, other occasions they form strings of lenticular clouds forms which are termed as wave clouds. These incredible clouds scare the pilots, especially power pilots, they avoid flying near lenticular clouds because of the turbulence of the rotor system that accompanies them while the sailplanes seek the lenticular clouds. The scientist has over time mistaken the lenticular clouds for UFO visual cover because of its features such as dark, lens appearance, and saucer-like shape.[4]

5. Bioluminescent Waves in Maldives, Thailand

Bioluminescent Waves in Maldives, Thailand

The luminous wet sand shorelines light the beaches across several regions around the world. Among the most recognized bioluminescent waves beaches include the Puerto Rico, Maldives, Thailand among other areas. The phenomenon is described as a magical phenomenon. When the waves blow on the beaches, the wet sand is left glowing bright green-blue light. The bright green-blue glow originates from the substantial number of populations of microscopic phytoplankton that are highly bioluminescent. The phytoplankton’s chemical energy reacts to produce the green-blue light that results in the incredible illuminating waves of natural phenomenon. According to scientists, the plankton’s glow to provide the light because of stress which is fascinating when you consider the peaceful appearance in the night.[5]

6. Blood Rain, India

Blood Rain, India

The world has been at a standstill on several occasions because of the occurrence of immemorial torment with things that cannot be explained scientifically. In other cases, such events threaten the very existence of magic and the causality that humans are accused of seeing. One such event is the blood rain in Kerala, India, occurred first in 1896, and it happened several other times after that. In 2001, the world was baffled with the mysterious red rain between July 25, and September 23, the massive red rain poured causing pink stains on the locals’ clothes. The most recent reports of the dumbfoundingly unexplainable natural phenomenon blood rain were in July 2012.

The scientists and other scholars launched several studies to investigate the phenomenon. Some scientists concluded that the meteor burst caused blood rain in Kerala while others suggest that the was due to the desert dust that originated from the Arabian Desert. The attempt to explain the natural phenomenon seems to be futile because all the speculations were later ruled out. It is the incredible work of nature.[6]

7. Hessdalen Light, Norway

Hessdalen Light, Norway

The sight of mysterious balls of light hovering over the valley in central Norway has perplexed scientists and scholars over the years trying to explain the phenomena. The origin of the Hessdalen valley light in Norway is unknown, and many tourists travel to the region to witness the attractive display of light. The size of the balls varies with some as big as a car, and they appear floating or stationary over the ground, while at other times the light balls move at fantastic speed. Duration sometimes varies the light lasts over an hour otherwise shorter term.

The first documented appearance of the Hessdalen lights was in the 1940s. The most prolonged and high frequency was reported in as from the 1981 December to the summer of 1984 with the light appearing at a rate of 15-21 times per week. However, today the light is only observed 10 to 20 times per year. One of the scientific theories advanced to explain the phenomenon claims that the hard rocks in the Valley divided by the Sulphurous River provides the right condition for creating the original battery for the orbs. The scientist claims that the ionized bubbles of Sulphur fumes react with humid air forming balls of light.[7]

8. Sailing Stones in the Death Valley, California

Sailing Stones in the Death Valley, California

The first incident recorded of the sailing stones in the Death Valley was 1915, in the driest places in North America. The geological phenomenon of sailing stones has baffled millions of people from all walks of life until the secret was revealed in 2014; the rocks move from one place to other altering directions. Due to the hostile climatic conditions in the region, no living organisms move around. Therefore, the locomoting stones leave trails that are unaffected by anything. The rocks seem to locomote closer to each other, and other times they change direction abruptly moving left, right, or back to where they came from. The stones of the same size and shape move the same distance and at the same speed, however, some stop suddenly or move further ahead. The scientists have been studying the sailing stones of Death Valley National Parke California since the 1900s in vain. However, in 2014, the scientists finally figured out the cause of the movement and why they do so use the time lapse video footage. The stones move because of thin ice sheet melting causing the stones to move at the speed of low winds.[8]

9. River Under the Black Sea

River Under the Black Sea

The scientists discovered huge river flowing underneath the Black sea, explaining how life manages to survive in the interior depth of the sea where nutrients would have been otherwise difficult to be found. According to scientist’s estimation, the river would have been the sixth largest river on land in terms of water volume flowing through it. The undersea river channels the saline water flowing along the seabed through Bosporus strait under the Black Sea. This discovery confirms the existence of small channels emanating from the mouth of the Amazon River to the Atlantic Ocean.

The Black Sea undersea river is the first of its kind, and the scientists reveal that such a natural phenomenon can only be explored using specialized vehicles due to its power and unpredictability. The length of the river is estimated to be 38miles long, 0.6 miles wide and 115 feet in depth. The undersea river flows at a speed of 4 miles per hour and carries 22, 000 cubic meter volume of water per second. The features in the undersea river resemble the surface river characteristics such as waterfalls, riverbanks, floodplains, and rapid flows.[9]

10. Turquoise Ice Crystals in Lake Baikal, Russia

Natural Phenomenon - Turquoise Ice Crystals in Lake Baikal, Russia

Fantastic turquoise ice crystals are formed on Lake Baikal during winter as the lake freezes. The Lake Baikal in Russia is the largest freshwater lake on earth, and it is also the oldest lake existing on the surface of the planet for over 20 million years. According to various studies, the Lake Baikal contains around 20% of all the earth’s freshwater. The lake has the most transparent water in the world. It is also the home of the most unusual varieties of flora and fauna of which 1600 is endemic to the Lake Baikal in Russia. During winter, when the lake freezes it forms large shards of transparent ice forms on the surface of Lake Baikal, which give the lake an incredible phenomenon in turquoise ice.[10]

Top 10 Most Tragic Clinical Trials in History

Tragic Clinical - The Thalidomide Drug Trials

New drugs are supposed to save lives but some of them end lives even before they are used to treat anything. The world needs new drugs all the time and the only way to get them on the shelves is through a clinical trial. The problem, however, is that most people do not like being used as the trial and error subjects for these new drugs and the fear is quite justified. Despite the safety regulations required by authorities, the manufacturers often fail to consider the subjects leading to fatal cases, lucky subjects may end up with life-long defects. To bypass the stigma, some pharmaceutical companies are forced to lie to the subjects which make any complications even worse. Here is a look at 10 clinical trials that went really wrong.

1. The Thalidomide Drug Trials

Tragic Clinical - The Thalidomide Drug Trials

By the late 1950s, Thalidomide was almost as popular as Aspirin today. It had been developed in post-war Germany as the best sedative and later the best treatment for nausea and morning sickness in expectant mothers. This drug was marketed as totally safe as the lab claimed they could not find “a dose large enough to kill a rat.” When it hit the US market in the 60s, Frances Kelsey, the FDA inspector refused to approve it because she felt there was insufficient information on the safety of the drug. Her fears were confirmed a year later by Dr. Arthur McBride from Australia as he noticed that the drug inhibited limb development in unborn children and caused defects. Most of them were born with flipped limbs or just no limbs at all. More cases were confirmed across Europe with numbers rising to over 10,000. This disastrous impact raised fear causing the drug to banned across the world. I was however accepted as a reliable remedy for leprosy.[1][2]

2. The Pfizer Clinical Trial

In 1996, Nigeria was hit by what is regarded as the worst outbreak of Meningitis in African history. Pfizer, one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world, offered to help. They brought in two trial dugs and gave them to hundreds of children. They, however, didn’t tell the parents that their children were being used as tests for these drugs. The parents were assured that the drugs had been used before and proven to be safe. Their trial became more dangerous when they decided to use lower doses than recommended on some children resulting in slurred speech and even brain damage. 11 of the children died prompting the State of Kano where most of the tests were conducted to sue Pfizer. The company initially claimed that the children had died from Meningitis but later admitted wrongdoing and paid $175,000 to each affected family.[3]

3. The Elephant Man Trial

The Elephant Man Trial

TGN1412 was a magical cure initially believed by many scientists to be able to treat leukemia, arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. PAREXEL an American company organized the first phase of human trials assuring the volunteers that the worst side effects of the drug would be a headache, just a headache! The £2000 prize was a welcome bonus too for the 8 young men who signed up for a clinical test in London hospital. The government had said the drug was safe when used on monkeys, so nothing could go wrong, or so they thought. Within minutes of being injected with the drug, the volunteers started wailing in agony and projectile vomiting. The drug caused multiple organ failure as their immune systems overreacted. Their bodies were swollen like “elephant men” as the victims and the clinical officers later described the effects. Most of them were left with lifelong defects including amputated limbs and breathing difficulties. It was confirmed that the drug had been administered 10 times faster on the subjects than it had been on the monkeys. They sued the company and were paid off in out of court settlements.[4]

4. The Leukemia CAR-T Trial

The Leukemia CAR-T Trial

Cancer is the major focus for many clinical trials today but none ever turned as fatal as this trial. The CAR-T treatment was one of the most promising ones in 2016 sponsored by Juno Therapeutics, a startup valued at $4.3 billion at the time. The treatment was focused on inducing the development of T-Cells in the body which helps to fight tumors in cancer. The trial was testing whether the drug could be used for adult Lymphoma, a rare form of blood cancer. The first patient treated with the drug got worse within a few weeks and died even after the doctors stopped the treatment and resumed chemotherapy. Two more patients in the sample of 20 died within the same period forcing the FDA to shut down the experiments. The company lost over 25% of its stock value and the drug was put under review.[5][6]

5. The Eye Stem Cell Transfer Trial

Most clinical trials pay the test subjects to participate but not this one. In 2015, the US government website for clinical trials (clinicaltrials.gov) advertised a stem cell treatment for old patients suffering from poor vision. Despite the risk of blindness from the procedure, the three women paid $5000 for a stem cell treatment in their eyes to restore their full sight. All the patients were over 70 years of age when they decided to participate. The government had approved stem-cell transfer aimed at replacing cells lost in Age-related Muscular Degradation, a condition common for old people. At the time of treatment, the patients had partial vision loss but after the procedure, all the three went totally blind. They suffered from severe bleeding and total retinal detachment, a state that left them permanently blind. Researches conducted after the procedure confirmed that proper safety measures were not included in the treatment and that it should not have been done on both eyes simultaneously.[7][8]

6. The Gene Therapy Clinical Trial

Gene therapy has been around for decades with lots of criticism. When this technique of treating genetic disorders picked pace in the late 20th century, tragedy struck. Jesse Geisinger, an 18-year-old high school graduate from Arizona signed up for an experimental treatment for OTC deficiency. He actually knew that the treatment would not heal his condition but it was not supposed to kill him either. He only signed up so the results could help other patients. The experiment was testing the possibility of gene therapy treating acute cases of OTC deficiency in infants.

His desire to save the future generation, however, turned fatal for him as he became the first person to die from gene therapy trials. The study was conducted at the The University of Pennsylvania which had received FDA approval although the authorities were skeptical about the treatment. The actual cause of his death was not established but other complications were reported among other patients receiving similar treatment earlier. The administrators had not disclosed the other adverse cases and so safety measures were not included in his trial.[9][10]

7. The University of Minnesota Antipsychotic Drug Trial

The University of Minnesota Antipsychotic Drug Trial

In 2003 Dan Markingson was diagnosed with psychosis and a federal judge gave him two choices, be confined at a state mental facility or accept treatment from the university hospital. Bot options were for his safety and the latter seemed like the best option when it was actually a death sentence. After enrolling for the study, his condition worsened as his actions became more erratic and suicidal prompting his mother to advise the university to stop. The administration, however, kept him on the medication which later led to his suicide. He left his mother a suicide note before stabbing himself with a knife in the bathroom. The university immediately downplayed the effects of their actions and denied responsibility for 11 years. Public outcry forced them to accept an external auditor to review the study in 2015. He later confirmed that their conduct of the trial was unethical and contributed to Markingson’s suicide. The university had used coercion and forced treatment to administer the drugs even after the patient became worse. The university was forced to shut down the research.[11][12]

8. The John Hopkins Asthma Trial

Ellen Roche was an employee at the John Hopkins University hospital when she signed up as a volunteer for the cancer study in 2001. The experiment aimed at finding the exact cause of Asthma. She was told the worst side effects would be slight shortness of breath. It involved inhaling one drug that temporarily constricted the breathing tract and a second one that prevented the nerves in the lungs from reacting normally. Roche was the third volunteer in the research, the second subject had used the drugs, got sick then recovered making the doctors more confident. She was however very unlucky as her lungs started failing immediately leading to her admission to the ICU. He condition deteriorated quickly leading to multiple organ failure. Her family finally decided to put her off life support a few days later as her condition was only getting worse. A review of the drugs identified the second drug, hexamethonium, as dangerous and not approved by the FDA. The doctors just said she gave her life for an important study.[13]

9. The Biotrial Anti-anxiety Clinical Trial

The Biotrial Anti-anxiety Clinical Trial

Biotrial is a French Pharmaceutical company which launched Bial, a new treatment they believed could help anxiety patients and also regulate mood swing disorders. The trial involved 100 patients in the clinical phase. 6 of the patients were given the highest possible dosage of the drug. All of them immediately suffered brain damage with one going completely braid dead and finally dying a few days after taking the drug. The other 5 suffered irreversible brain damage losing mobility and speech coordination. The research was shut down and an investigation later confirmed that the pretrial testing done on animals had killed many dogs but the company did not disclose it to the subjects. The company was later cleared of any wrongdoing as the review agreed that the age of the subjects had something to do with the reaction and not the company.[14][15]

10. The University of Rochester Bronchoscopy Tragedy

Bronchoscopy is a popular procedure used to draw samples from the lungs by inserting a tube through the mouth. The University of Rochester hospital was doing research on how respiratory cells react to pollutants. In its 15th year in 1996, they advertised for a volunteer to offer cell samples from their lungs. The prize was $150 and Nicole Wan and her boyfriend signed up for some pocket money except for her, it was a death sentence. After the process, she felt weak but the hospital still discharged her. Two days later, her heart stopped and she died. The biopsy confirmed that the researchers had used way too much anesthetic in the process and taken too much sample from her which proved fatal. The university had even exceeded their own regulations stated before the sturdy and caused the death of the student.[16]

10 Greatest FBI Fails of All Time

FBI Fails

The federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is one of the most successful and elite government agencies in the world. It has recorded perfect records in cracking the most complex cases in the world ranging from terrorism, spies, and criminal cases, for instance, an investigation into Alcatraz Prison Escape, Aldrich Ames, Russian spy among others. The FBI has become a symbol of success and secrecy among governmental agencies in both international and local crimes, and the bureau has proven to be a badass day in day out. When you set a sky-high standard everyone in the country look at your performance, a slight mistake is spotted faster. But the FBI has had their share of failures too. They have made shameful errors that even the nation is certainly not proud of. Here are the top 10 greatest FBI fails of all time.

1. The FBI Used the Wrong Video for a Wanted Murderer

The case of mistaken identity was one of the greatest fails of the FBI. There is a general saying: “you cannot hide from the FBI,” however, the most wanted fugitive hibernated from the FBI for 16 good years, probably living on US soil while the bureau searched from him everywhere else. The former FBI informant and leader of organized crimes James “Whitey” Bulgar was rated just behind Osama Bin Laden on their most wanted fugitive list. Bulgar was wanted for money laundering, multiple extortions, over 20 murders, narcotics distribution, organized crimes, racketeering, conspiracy to commit murder, extortion among other crimes.

He was on the run from the FBI for 16 years before his capture in St. Monica, US. The FBI used supposedly his most recent photos and video taken at Sicilia resort in the manhunt for Bulgar. With the help of the Germany crime show to hunt for Bulgar using the images and video that turned out to belong to the Bulgar’s father and mother, who are harmless and innocent retiree German citizens. The FBI was confused which photo to use because they were convinced, through their expert vetting that it was their most wanted fugitive only to be disappointed. It took the FBI five days to take down the photos of the German couple from their website even after confirming they were not their target fugitive, Bulgar and Greig.[1]

2. Agents Forgot a Classified Document in a Suspect’s Home 2010

In a search, seizure, and surrender operation conducted by the FBI on seven homes of activists in Chicago and Minneapolis, the agents made the worst mistake that no one expects the government agency agents of their status could ever do. They left behind classified documents in one of the suspect’s houses, belonging to a couple, Mick Kelly and Linden Gawboy. The operation entailed seizure of records, books, cell phones, computers, passports in the process, the agents left behind their classified operation order documents. The operation order documents contained the raid plan, surveillance photos, interview questions to the suspects.

It is hard to believe, but given the nature of the raid that entailed seizure of over ten boxes of documents, books, and computers, the couple’s house was left in a total mess. The documents left behind surfaced seven months later when the couple was going through the remains of the documents and paperwork in the house. The document titled dangerous list activists Jessica Rae Sundin and Merideth Aby who are suspected of supporting the Revolutionary Armed Force of Colombia following their recent visit and attendance of the RAFC peace summit in Colombia. The humble advice and plea to the FBI and other law enforcement agencies, please, when you raid someone’s house, do not forget to leave with the classified documents and the surveillance photos you came with. Because this puts not only your operation at risk but also your and suspect’s life at great danger.[2]

3. The FBI Let the Nazi Spy Ring Leader Off the Hook, 1938

The FBI busted the Nazi spy ring in the US in 1938, a year before the start of WWII. It started with the arrest of Rumerich who was busted impersonating the US secretary of state ordering 35 blank US passports to be sent to his hotel. Rumerich was contacted by his handler requesting for 35 US blank passports to sneak spies in Russia, he was, however, arrested as soon as the blank passports landed in his hands. He readily cooperated by naming more Nazi spies including the Nazi spy ring leader Ignatz Griebl. The FBI arrested Griebl, and he also exposed more Nazi spies, they were all arrested, thanks to the swift and incredible response by the FBI.

However, the FBI goofed when one of the FBI agents informed the spies that they would testify before a grand jury as a means to justice. The information that resulted in most of the spies encompassing Griebl to flee, leaving only Rumerich and two other spies to face prosecution. This was a great FBI failure because the Nazi spy ring leader Griebl was supposed to be in the FBI custody, all factors considered. Surprisingly Griebl was never in the FBI custody, and they only made him take the lie detector and left him even without monitoring his movements and activities. The bureau was also sloppy with sensitive information to the suspects.[3]

4. An Agent Married the ISIS Fighter She Was Investigating 2014

The predator is falling in love with the prey! One of the greatest FBI fails when the FBI agent Daniel Green, with top secret security clearance, tasked to investigate the wanted terrorist and criminal ISIS fighter Denis Cuspert ends up getting married to him. The terrorist was a former German rapper with stage name Deso Dogg, joined the ISIS and gained ranks, thanks to his prolific fighting skills. It is highlighted that Cuspert is one of the ferocious fighters and among the top ISIS leaders. He featured in a video holding a severed human head and threatened the then reigning US president Barack Obama.

On multiple accounts, Green lied to the FBI officials and obstructed the arrest of the Cuspert by feeding the Handler with false intel. For instance, she told the FBI deputy director she was going to Germany to visit her family when she escaped to Syria into ISIS region through Turkey to stay with her new husband. After living for a while as an ISIS bride, she realized it is not all rosy to be married to the ISIS leader. She fled back to the US where she was arrested and sentenced for two years in federal prison after pleading guilty of her crimes. The federal courts stated that Green violated the public trust, the trust of the top FBI officials who granted her top-secret security clearance, and the trust of her colleagues at the Bureau and thus endangered the nation’s security. It is not only the FBI failure but is also very shameful and embarrassing to the most sacksful government agency in the country.[4]

5. The FBI Agent in Charge of New York Lost the Counterterrorism Plans for the City, 2000

The FBI launched an internal investigation into one of the seniors most officials, John O’Neil who lost a briefcas3e containing the FBI’s classified documents. Among the documents in the briefcase was the annual office report which covers all the active counterterrorism operations and counterespionage operations in the New York office. The other document contained information about an FBI informant, a careless mistake that such a reputable agent should never make. The report indicates that the agent left the briefcase in the conference room to attend an FBI meeting in Tampa, Fla. when it was stolen.

The police recovered the suitcase and brought it back to him several hours later. The Justice Department decided not to prosecute the case as they scanned the fingerprints of the document to confirmed that they had not been accessed. This was a big mistake to such a decorated agent who has been in charge of several successful Counterterrorism operations including the 1998 US embassy bombing in East Africa. Such fail by the FBI, though minimal, puts the country’s national security at risk as well as thousands of its employees around the world.[5]

6. An FBI Agent Crashed a Stolen Ferrari During a Joyride

The stolen Ferrari was recovered, thanks to the FBI’s effort and hard work, the owner’s delight, and happiness was short live because the supercar crushed while the FBI agent was testing it. The recovery occurred during the Drug bust in Kentucky in 2008; however, the Ferrari had been reported missing in 2003, the owner, Motor Insurance had paid out the claim by the Ferrari’s original owner. The Motor Insurance were delighted to be informed of the find, but the FBI refused to release the car claim its part of an active investigation only to be crushed a year later by an FBI agent Fred Kingston who decided to take the assistant US attorney J. Hamilton Thompson for a joyride.

The insurance company sued the US Justice Department for an amount worth $750 000 which was the total cost of repair, which the department declined to pay. According to the Assistant US attorney, the car began sliding seconds after they took, the agent tried to gain control in vain, leading to the crash. While the Department of Justice cites that the FBI is not liable to pay the repair expenses since the Ferrari was in detention at the time of the crash.[6]

7. The FBI Director Called Poland “A Nazi Accomplice” 2015

The FBI director James Comey suggested in the Washington post in 2015 that Poland assisted the Nazi during World War II. The FBI director’s comment raised a heated debate around the world concerning the validity of the statement. The president of Poland demanded a public apology from the US government following the FBI directors’ insult to thousands of Poles who helped the Jewish during WWII. Many history scholars also accuse the FBI director of what the termed his inability to genuinely present history as it is. The US is accused of the falsification of historical facts, and the US ambassador in Poland was summoned to issue an apology.

Here is the exact wording of the FBI director Comey: “In their minds, the murderers and accomplices of Germany, and Poland, and Hungary, and so many, many other places didn’t do something evil. They convinced themselves it was the right thing to do, the thing they had to do.” The comment implicates Poland as compliance of Nazi Germany in perpetrating the Holocaust. When approaching for the commend, the FBI director stated that the opinion that Poland was responsible for the Holocaust was not the position of the US, he reiterated the US ambassador to Poland’s statement that Nazi Germany alone was responsible for the murders. Hungary also joined Poland to condemn the FBI chief.[7]

8. FBI Deliberately Used Someone Else’s Picture on Bin Laden’s Wanted Poster, 2010

Imagine waking up one morning, and you find your photograph facial image alongside the most headed terrorist in the world? Gasper Llamazares, a Spanish politician, was surprised to see his face used by the FBI to develop the aging face of Osama bin Laden. The use of the “cutting edge” technology, the FBI forensic expert lifted Llamazares photo and pasted it to be the most current bin Laden’s image posted on the FBI website of the most wanted terrorist. The federal government justice department wanted to get the most recent Bin Laden’s aging image to use of what he is supposed to look like, and the FBI forensic expert downloaded Llamazares image from the internet and utilized his parts to make the Osama image.

It is unethical, unprofessional and shameful for the most reputable US government agency to use the image of a real person to draft the image of the most loathed terrorist around the world. The Spanish politician vowed to sue the FBI for risking his life. According to Llamazares, it is no longer safe for him to travel to the US for, and he fears for his life for he may be assassinated thinking he is the terrorist. The FBI chief issued to Llamazares a written apology describing the incident as unfortunate.[8]

9. The FBI Allowed a Soon-to-be Mass Murderer to Legally Buy a Gun 2015

The South Carolina, Emanuel AME in Charlton in June 2015, was one of the failures of the FBI, which allowed the mass murderer to purchase the gun. Dylan Roof, a 21-year-old white supremacist, joined the worshipers in the church during a bible study, after about an hour he extracted his handgun and gunned down 9 African American members of the congregation. The gun was legally purchased upon approval by the FBI who are supposed to run background checks for all gun buyers before giving the seller a go ahead.

Both the Lexington County sheriff department and FBI had the record that states that Roof was arrested for narcotics, a crime which he pleaded guilty, this alone disqualifies him from legally owning a gun, yet the sloppy FBI approved the purchase which resulted in the Charlton church shooting. The director of FBI James Comey admitted that Roof should never have been allowed to own a gun in the first place. It was attributed to the confusion among the law enforcement that filed his narcotic arrest record wrongly to another county department failing. It is evident and undeniable that the death toll in the church-shooting off on the hands of the FBI, courtesy of their approval for the mass murderer to acquire the weapon.[9]

10. FBI’s Philadelphia Office Was Burgled 1971

Eight members of the activist movement, Citizens to Investigate the FBI broke into the FBI office in Philadelphia and made away with over a thousand classified documents. The activists were against the Vietnam war. The stolen documents revealed several FBI illegal surveillance activities. For instance, the FBI Counter Intelligence Program termed COINTEL PRO was an FBI operation program tasked to factionalize and generate mistrust among civil rights movement and discredit activists such as Martin Luther King.

It sounds hilarious that the activists did not even use sophisticated equipment to access the Philadelphia FBI office apart from a crowbar and lock pick expert. Bennie Raines, the brain behind the whole operation posed as college student interviewing several FBI agents on Job Opportunities for women at the FBI in the planning process. The activists were never arrested because the FBI failed to trace the perpetrators of the burglary in their office. After 43 years, the activists Bonnie Raines wife to retired religious professor John Raines, her husband, and Keith Forsyth, the cab driver, confessed to being the organizers of the FBI Philadelphia office burglary.[10]

10 Most Dangerous Countries to Be a Female in the World

Dangerous Countries to Be a Female in the World - United States women

From across the globe, experts ranging from health professionals, journalists, policymakers, academics, social commentators, development specialists, non-government workers, NGO staff and many more were given the task from the organization to rank all countries in terms of risk for women based on the following factors of healthcare, discrimination, sexual violence, cultural and traditional practices, human trafficking, and physical violence. The Thomson Reuters Foundation wanted to research to determine the most dangerous countries for women out of all 193 United States and surveyed 550 experts to focus on women’s issues to know which countries make it to the list of top ten most dangerous countries in the world to be a woman. A similar survey was conducted several years ago, and the Foundation wanted to find out if the results had changed by organizing the same research. Here is the list of the 10 most dangerous countries in the world for women according to the survey of global experts.

1. India

Dangerous Countries to Be a Female in the World - India

According to the poll of global experts, India is rank as the most dangerous country in the world for women because of its high occurrences of sexual assault, being forced into sexual slavery, human trafficking, female infanticide, child marriage and lack of justice in rape cases. Experts reported that India outranked the list on the survey because its government has done almost nothing to defend and protect the women even after the controversial case of a young female student being gang-raped and murdered in a bus in 2012 which had evoked international and national outrage.

According to India’s government data, cases of crimes against women rose by 83 percent between the year 2007 and 2016, where there were reports of four cases of rape every hour. As years go on, domestic abuse, child marriages were increasing, and more young women died during childbirth. Also, India has the most numbers of child brides in the world, and its own government estimated that there were millions of young women who had gone missing because of sex-selective abortion. Among the countries Afghanistan, Syria and Saudi Arabia, India is ranked number one in high cases of rape and violence against women.[1]

2. Afghanistan

Afghanistan women

Afghanistan is ranked as the most dangerous country for women, according to the international poll of experts on gender issues. The extreme levels of sexual violence, cultural discrimination, lack of healthcare, poverty, and low access to economic resources make it the worse country for women to live in. According to Antonella Notari, head of Women Change Makers, a group that supports women entrepreneurs around the world, Afghanistan is an unsafe place for women because of the combined ongoing conflict, NATO airstrikes, and the unsafe cultural practices. Also, women who attempt to speak out or take out public roles to defend their rights and what is acceptable for women to do and not do, they are often threated to be killed.

Afghanistan remains as one of the most dangerous places in the world to be a mother, child, and a baby because of having limited access to healthcare and doctors. The country has one of the highest infant mortality rates in the world, and every year thousands of Afghan women die while in the middle of giving birth. According to UNICEF, the majority of these deaths can be prevented if these mothers and children have access to quality healthcare, were given comprehensive treatment and quality care.[2]

3. Syria

Syria women

According to global experts, seven years of civil war in Syria have turned into one of the most dangerous countries for women to live. Syria is ranked as the third worst place for women in terms of domestic abuse, rising of child marriage, sexual violence, no access to healthcare and education. During the civil war, numerous weapon attacks have taken place across Syria, causing the deaths of half a million innocent people and half of the population to flee to other counties. The Syrian women were being sexually exploited by the government forces and have a lack of access to justice in rape cases due to the complete absence of law. There is Syria is ranked the seventh as the worst for having lack of access to economic resources and joint third with the United States with regards to the high risks of women facing sexual violence and harassment. Domestic violence and child marriage keep increasing, and more young women are dying during childbirth.[3]

4. Somalia

Somalia women

The poll ranked Somalia as the fourth most dangerous country for women after being mired in conflict since 1991 with the government struggling to take control over the impoverished rural areas that are under the Islamist militant group Al-Shabaab. The country was deemed worst place for women to live due to lack of access to healthcare and economic resources, facing sexual violence, child marriage, female genital mutilation and being at risk of harmful cultural and traditional practices which are stoning and acid attacks as a form of retribution. The women in Somalia have suffered for over two decades of war that weakens the institutions and devastate the country, causing half of the population to become homeless. Daily, the country is under terrorist attacks, civil war and street violence which always results in multiple injuries, deaths, and displacement on its civilians. For decades, Somalia is amongst one of the most dangerous countries in the world, making it unsafe for tourists to visit.[4]

5. Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia is ranked as the fifth most dangerous country for women in terms of discrimination policies, economic opportunities, limited fundamental rights and risks from cultural and religious practices. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the women are required to follow the guardianship policy whereby they not allowed to decide without male permission. It is obligatory for all women in the country to have an official male guardian, generally a father, uncle, husband or brother. The women must have the approval of their male guardian for any major activities such as working, traveling, getting medical treatments, and getting married.

Under Islamic law, the women must follow a strict regulation of a dressed code of wearing a long cloak and a headscarf. If they expose most flesh and wear too much make-up, the women are at risk of being harassed by men, especially from the police. The women are also required to limit their interaction with men who are not related to them. In most public buildings of the country such as banks and offices, including public transportations, amusement parks and beaches are segregated for the different sexes. It is considered unlawful for both parties to be mixed which will lead to criminal charges, but the women will face a much severe punishment.[5]

6. Pakistan

Pakistan is ranked as the sixth most dangerous country in the world for women in terms of discrimination, sexual violence and harassment, forced child marriages and the risk of cultural, religious and traditional practices. According to Pakistan’s Human Rights Commission, every year, more than 1,000 women and young girls are victims of so-called honor killings. Another brutal retribution or punishment some women faced are acid attacks, stoning, and physical violence. According to World Bank Data, almost one in three Pakistani women report suffering from domestic violence from their husbands. On the report from a data of Daily Times, VAWC Multan has administered with numerous cases of various categories that are based on violence against women. Such include physical abuse, family disputes, property disputes, sexual harassment, claims of rape, and criminal offenses.[6]

7. Democratic Republic of Congo

Democratic Republic of Congo women

The Central African nation is ranked second as the most dangerous country for women due to its high levels of rape and sexual violence, poor access to healthcare and economic resources, and harmful cultural and traditional practices. The female victims who were raped have lack of access to justice, and the perpetrators can continue with their lives without facing any consequences by the authorities. In the country, the perpetrators were never charged for their criminal acts, and remain free to continue to commit the same atrocities, causing the sexual violence against women to increase and get worse daily.

According to the report in the American Journal of Public Health, about 1,150 of Congolese women are raped every day which is about 420,000 a year. DR Congo is a place where it is more dangerous to be a woman than to be a soldier. Years of civil war and extreme violence have some families displaced to other countries, get separated or have members of the family killed. The years on conflict has led to the women replacing men as the primary economic providers for the family due to the absence of men from either displacement, being unable to work or death.[7]

8. Yemen

Yemen women

Yemen is ranked eight in the list for being one of the most dangerous countries for women due to the risk from cultural and traditional practices, physical violence and minimal access to healthcare, education, protection, and economic resources. It is one of the Arab’s most impoverished countries that has been devasted by an ongoing civil war between the Houthis and a Saudi-led coalition. In Southern Yemen, women and children are frequently exposed to violence in conflicted-affected areas, and the result of the continuous war caused millions on civilians to suffer from lack of access to essential services and emergency relief assistance.

In many areas of the country, flooding and other natural disasters have caused devastation and epidemic outbreak of cholera disease to its residents. Thousands of civilians have died from the causes of poor health, high levels of undernutrition and disease. Only half of the country’s 3,500 health facilities are fully functioning, causing at least 16 million civilians to suffer from lack of primary healthcare. The crisis of the war has also forced millions of people to flee their homes without their basic needs. The war in Yemen has led to the deaths of thousands of civilians and millions to suffer from lack of access to food, water, shelter and health services they need to survive. The conflict of the war has made the country the world’s worst humanitarian crisis with millions of people in urgent need of vital assistance.[8]

9. Nigeria

Nigeria women

The African nation is ranked ninth as one of the worst countries to be a woman due to the risk of sexual slavery, forced labor, domestic servitude, poor healthcare, and human trafficking. The Nigerian women even suffered from a lot of obstacles regarding terrorism, poverty, cultural and traditional practices of child marriages, female genital mutilation, female infanticide and retribution through acid attacks, stoning, and physical abuse. Sexual assault occurs commonly among the Nigerian women in terms of rape as a weapon of war, sexual harassment and the lack of access to justice in rape cases.

Every year, thousands of Nigerian women are involved in illegal immigration in Europe after being sold as sex workers by their pimps who deceived them with fake employment certificates. Nigeria even has the highest number of female genital mutilation worldwide and based on the report; the cutting mostly occurs on girls in their early childhood. Child marriage in Nigeria is very common. According to the research of UNICEF, 17% of Nigerian girls are forced to get married at the age of 15, and 44% of them are married at 18. Based on the numerous reports, Nigeria has the highest number of VVV – Vesico Vagina Fistula, cases in the world due to early marriages.[9]

10. United States

United States women

The United States is the only western country in the top ten list of most dangerous countries for women in terms of the risk of sexual violence, sexual harassment, coercion into sex and absence of justice in cases of rape. Based on the #MeToo and Time’s Up campaigns that went viral, thousands of women joined together online using the social media to share their stories about their experiences of sexual abuse or harassment and wanted justice. According to data from the Rape Abuse & Incest National Network (RAINN), one in six American women has been a victim of rape, and nine out of ten victims of rape are women. Scott Berkowitz, the president of RAIIN, is pursed to end the sexual assault and harassment against women and support the survivors by educating the public about the act of consent, and focusing on prevention for violence and to bring perpetrators to justice by reinforcing the criminal justice system.[10]

10 Unbelievable Animals That Saved Human Lives

Unbelievable Animals That Saved Human Lives - The Three Guardian Lions

Heroes come in all shapes and sizes. This world’s history is full of harrowing tales where the extraordinary became a reality, and the odds were indeed defied. The impossible becomes possible when lives are at stake, and destiny calls upon someone to save the day. Most people think of a superhero with a cape and mask stopping the bad guys from harming the innocent. Justice is blind, and so are the people that firmly believe that all heroes must come in costumes. Because in reality, some do not even wear pants. Some of the furry individuals that make up the animal kingdom are responsible for some unbelievable heroic acts.

Animals have been capable of remarkable things throughout history, and that includes saving the lives of people all over the world. It is a fantastic thing to witness a being of little cognitive ability to realize that it is time to save someone from a dangerous situation. The difference between life and death has happened more than a few times thanks to the work of the creatures found in nature. Of all the acts of valor committed by the beasts of the world, here are ten times unbelievable animals saved humans that are without a shadow of a doubt the stuff of legends.

1. Toby the Golden Retriever

Unbelievable Animals That Saved Human Lives - Toby the Golden Retriever

Everyone knows that a dog is man’s best friend. But when it came to Toby, a 2-year-old golden retriever, he proved that they are definitely woman’s best friend too. His owner, a woman named Debbie Parkhurst, was choking on a piece of apple. She was in danger of suffocating to death with only Toby around to assist her. Now this Golden Retriever has had no formal medical training or even attended a seminar at his local YMCA on the Heimlich maneuver. But that did not stop this bone loving toilet water drinking hero in the shadows to step up when destiny called him to arms. Toby performed the Heimlich on his owner saving her life and solidifying that dogs are mankind’s greatest ally.[1]

2. Mila the Beluga

Mila the Beluga

Whales are definitely the gentle giants of the sea. So when one thinks of animal superheroes, this one tends not to make the list. That changed the day Mila the Beluga decided that nobody was going to die on her watch. During a banal apnea competition that took place in an actual beluga pond located in China something went wrong. One of the competitors was Yang Yun and everything as going smoothly until it just wasn’t. Yun’s legs ceased to function, and she was unable to reach the surface. Unable to hold her breath forever, darkness would soon descend upon her until Mila decided to save the underwater competitor. She grabbed Yun’s leg with her jawbone and brought her to the surface. Yun survived thanks to the heroic acts of mils the beluga whale.[2]

3. Lulu the Vietnamese Pig

Lulu the Vietnamese Pig

Pigs are quite pork-ish fellows that are a bit on the large size. So the movement is never their forte, and there aren’t many heroes resembling swine. So a story of a Vietnamese Pig making the ranks of the Avengers and Justice League in the saving lives department is quite the find. Lulu decided that pigs needed to be recognized as defenders of the innocent, so when the day came to save her owner, she did not hesitate. Joann Altsman, Lulu’s keeper, went into cardiac arrest and was destined for the afterlife. Lulu knew she needed to get help or her owner would expire. She ran at full speeds into the road, risking life and limb to get someone’s attention. She continually went back to check on Altsman and continued to try to attract attention from people by playing dead. One person finally followed Lulu to her master and called for help before it was too late.[3]

4. Willie the Parrot

Willie the Parrot

Parrots are the chatty Kathy’s of the bird realm. They are a talkative bunch, but most of what there squawking is recycled nonsense. But sometimes the right words get out. These right words made sure little Hanna was able to survive a choking incident. She began to hold her throat and display all the signs of someone whose breathing has been severely impaired. This did not go unnoticed by her winged green pet. Her parrot Will caught on that something was wrong, and when her face began to turn blue, he did the only thing he could do. William made some serious noise. The babysitter came running out of the bathroom once she heard Willie scream out “mommy baby” and noticed Hanna was choking. Willie became a legend that day and from that day on when he spoke the people listened.[4]

5. The Three Guardian Lions

Unbelievable Animals That Saved Human Lives - The Three Guardian Lions

Lions are popularly known for being the kings of their respected domain. They are fierce hunters that lead the pack and make sure that danger stays at bay. They are the great protectors of the wild, and that ranges outside their species. So when the story of three heroic lions coming to a person’s rescue and protecting that individual until help arrived, it naturally caught people’s attention. Back in 2012 a poor young woman was kidnapped and forced to marry a man against her will. She was beaten and threatened with rape until an unlikely group of saviors arrived. Three magnificent lions chased off her captors and were standing guard ensuring the young girl’s safety. As soon as police arrived and it was understood the girl would be saved, the lions let the humans take over as their job was done.[5]

6. Jambo the Gorilla

Jambo the Gorilla

Gorillas are considered very dangerous if a person is to enter their territory uninvited. They are very protective of there surroundings and can become hostile if they feel threatened. There have been many cases of people going into enclosures with these large animals, and the results have been less than stellar. They are not naturally aggressive creatures but are not to be underestimated as they are some of the wild’s most formidable adversaries that any human could encounter. These gentle giants are very protective creatures, and that can manifest itself in more ways than one. A while back a young boy fell into the gorilla pen at the Jersey zoo, and everyone thought this story would have a very tragic ending. But Jambo had other plans as the silver-backed gorilla quickly jumped to the boy’s rescue. He protected the child from his fellow gorillas and caressed his back letting him know everything was Ok when he cried. He even got his counterparts to vacate the area to allow rescue tor each the poor child.[6]

7. Mandy the Goat

Mandy the Goat

Goats are not the most heroic animal, not even the most graceful if one is completely honest. They are goofy looking creatures that eat garbage. But people should not judge a book by its cover, and people should not count out the goat to step up when it counts. One goat, in particular, defied the odds and proved that when someone is in danger, anybody or animal can be a hero. Mandy, the goat, was that hero for farmer Noel Osborne. On a typical day in the world of Noel, she was attending to her farming needs when the disaster struck. Osborne had fallen and injured her hip to the point where she was unable to move. She cried for help, but the only one that heard her cries was Mandy. This Goat stayed with Noel for five days keeping her warm at night and allowing her to survive off her milk. This is indeed one of the most remarkable stories of an animal saving a human being. Mandy solidified that she is the goats of all goats, the greatest of all time.[7]

8. Kabang the Dog

Kabang the Dog

Not every heroic animal makes it out unscathed when saving the day. Some take a severe hit that ends up leaving a scar behind. This was the case with Kabang, the dog. In the Philippines, two young girls were almost taken out by a motorcycle. The girls were 11 and three years old. Had it not been for the heroics of the canine savior known as Kabang, these two young girls would have been seriously injured or even killed. To save the damsels in distress Kabang, with no regard for himself, threw his body in front of the motorcycle preventing any harm coming to the children. The motorcycle driver was not hurt in the incident; the real victim was Kabang. The poor guy lost his snout when it got caught in the spokes during the ordeal and was left permanently disfigured. After the vet wanted to euthanize the dog, the owner refused, and Kabang went ton to have puppies. This hero dog is now a legend and an inspiration to us all.[8]

9. Ning Nong the Elephant

Ningnong the Elephant

Elephants are massive beings that walk the land like giants. They are a spectacle to see, and the things they can accomplish are quite amazing. They also work very well in a crisis. While most people would assume that these larger than life beasts would fumble over a situation, but they are actually a solid operator when things go wrong. These creatures known for never forgetting did the unforgettable during the terrible Tsunami crisis that took place in 2004 which ravaged the Indonesian coastline. A 4-year-old elephant known as Ning Nong saved Amber Mason form a watery death. The elephant could sense she was in danger and carried her to safety. When the waves came crashing down, the elephant shielded the small girl from the water. This is one of the most remarkable stories of heroism by an animal, and Ning Nong deserves a spot in the history books.[9]

10. Lefty the Pitbull

Lefty the Pitbull

It is no surprise that not one, not two, but three dogs have made this list of epic animal heroes. The last entry in this hall of fame of creature saviors is that of Lefty the pitbull. Pitbulls sometimes have a bad rap and are feared. But not all of them are dangerous, and some just need a loving environment to become more sociable. Lefty is definitely one of the good ones when it comes to Pitbulls. When burglars attempted to rob the home in which Lefty and his master resided in, the criminal degenerates were not going to hesitate to do what it takes to get what they came for. This led these intruders to open fire on Lefty’s dad. The dog threw himself into the field of fire acting as a shield for his owner. Lefty’s effort was a success, and he was able to shield his master from the impact of the speeding bullet. But Lefty was hit in the ordeal. He ended up having to get his leg amputated all because of some lousy robbers. But the good news is both Lefty and his owner are alive and happy today.[10]

10 Scary Horror Movies You Shouldn’t Watch Alone

Scary Horror Movies - The Grudge 2 (2006)

Horror movies are the most popular genre of movies out there. There are so many scary ones out there that you might argue which ones are the scariest. So I’ve made this list of ten scariest horror movies you shouldn’t watch alone.

1. Carrie (2013)

Scary Horror Movies Carrie (2013)

Carrie (2013) is a 2013 horror movie remake of the 1976 movie of the same name. It stars Chloe Grace Moretz, Julianne Moore, Judy Greer, Gabriella Wilde, Portia Doubleday, and Ansel Elgort. There is also a sequel to the original 1976 film, called Carrie 2: The Rage. It tells the story of Carrie’s half-sister Rachel. Now Carrie and Rachel never met. The film was released on March 12, 1999. It did poorly with only a 21% rating on Rotten Tomatoes. Then in 2002, a made for TV movie Carrie remake premiered. This version premiered on NBC and 12.21 million people tuned in.

The movie tells the story of tormented teenager Carrie White who gets the ultimate revenge on her classmates at the school prom. Carrie realizes she has telekinesis and uses her newfound powers to get revenge at the prom after a cruel prank. Carrie lives in Maine with her abusive and overly religious mother Margaret. The movie is based on the horror novel of the same name which is by Stephen King. Critics didn’t receive the movie very well. It only got a 49% score on Rotten Tomatoes. The critics said the film was ”unnecessary”. Chloe Grace Moretz plays Carrie, with Julianne Moore playing as Margaret. The film was released on October 18, 2013, in the United States.[1]

2. House of Wax (2005)

House Of Wax (2005)

House Of Wax is a 2005 horror movie remake of the 1953 movie of the same name. The 1953 film was actually a remake itself. The original film for that remake was called Mystery Of The Wax Museum which premiered in 1933. The film stars Elisha Cuthbert, Jared Padalecki, Chad Michael Murray, Paris Hilton, Robert Ri’chard, Brian Van Holt, and Jon Abrahams. It was released on May 6, 2005.

Carly Jones, her twin brother Nick, her boyfriend Wade, Nick’s friend Dalton, Carly’s friend Paige, and Paige’s boyfriend Blake decide to take a road trip to Louisiana to see a football game. After a long day of driving, night falls, and the gang decides to set up camp in an abandoned campground.

Little do they know that they’re actually in a creepy ghost town. Everyone, there has been killed and turned into wax statues for a Wax Museum. Two twin brothers have been killing the town residents and turning them into wax figures for their family Wax Museum. When members of the group start disappearing, it becomes pretty clear that Carly and her friends are next on the list to be turned into wax figures.[2]

3. Scream (1996)

Scream (1996)

Scream is a 1996 horror film. It stars Neve Campbell, Courtney Cox, Rose McGowan, Matthew Lillard, David Arquette, Skeet Ulrich, and Drew Barrymore. The film was released on December 20, 1996. It’s the first movie in the franchise. There are about four movies total in the franchise. The franchise was a success and has become a classic and fan favorite for all horror movie lovers. Scream 2 premiered on December 12, 1997. Scream 3 premiered on February 4, 2000. Scream 4 premiered on April 15, 2011.

It tells the story of teenager Sidney Prescott who is still reeling from the death of her mother. Her mother was raped and murdered by who she thought was a man named Cotton Weary. She lives with her father in Woodsboro, California. The town becomes plagued with fear when a killer named Ghost Face stalks and murders another teenager named Casey Becker and her boyfriend, Steve. As Sidney’s friends start getting killed, she realizes that she could be the killer’s next target.[3]

4. I Know What You Did Last Summer (1997)

I Know What You Did Last Summer (1997)

I Know What You Did Last Summer is a 1997 horror movie. It stars Jennifer Love Hewitt, Freddie Prinze Jr, Sarah Michelle Gellar, and Ryan Philippe. It also stars Anne Heche, Bridgette Wilson, and Johnny Galecki. The horror film spawned two sequels called I Still Know What You Did Last Summer released in 1998, and I’ll Always Know What You Did Last Summer released in 2006.

The movie is about four teenagers who become stalked by a killer known simply as ”The Hook”. He starts stalking them one year after they accidentally ran over and killed a fisherman, then threw his body into the river and never speak of it again.

The four teens are Julie James, Helen Shivers, Ray Bronson, and Barry Cox. One night after celebrating Helen’s beauty pageant win, and telling scary stories at the beach, the four head for home. Then they hit and kill a man. To avoid getting into trouble, they throw his body into the river and vow to never talk about it again. After the accident, the four stopped speaking to each other. One year later, Julie starts getting notes from a stranger telling her that he knows what they did. The four friends meet each other to discuss the notes; then Barry is murdered by a hook-wielding killer. Now Julie, Ray, and Helen must fight to stay alive before ”The Hook” comes for them next.[4]

5. Child’s Play (1988)

Child

Child’s Play is a 1988 horror film and the first film in the franchise. The film stars Catherine Hicks, Chris Sarandon, Alex Vincent, Brad Dourif, and Dinah Manoff. Child’s Play was a box office success and spawned six installments in the franchise. The franchise became very popular thanks to its cult following. Child’s Play 2 premiered on November 9, 1990. Child’s Play 3 premiered on August 30, 1991. Bride of Chucky premiered October 16, 1998. Seed Of Chucky premiered on November 12, 2004. Curse Of Chucky premiered on August 2, 2013. Lastly, Cult Of Chucky premiered August 24, 2017.

Catherine Hicks plays a mom who buys a doll named Chucky for her son Andy. Chucky is a possessed doll with the soul of a serial killer living inside him. The said serial killer is Charles Lee Ray. He was shot and killed by policemen Mike Norris. Realizing that he is dying, Charles transfers his soul into a doll using a voodoo spell. Later, Karen Barclay buys the toy for her son Andy as a birthday present. When Chucky kills Andy’s babysitter, Andy tries to warn his mother that Chucky is bad news. As a result, Andy becomes institutionalized. Now it’s up to Karen to prove that Chucky is a killer and save Andy before he becomes Chucky’s next victim.[5]

6. Final Destination 3 (2006)

Final Destination 3 (2006)

Final Destination 3 is a 2006 horror movie and is the third installment in the franchise. In total there are five installments in the franchise. Final Destination was released on March 17, 2000. Final Destination 2 was released on January 31, 2003. Final Destination 3 was released on February 10, 2006. The Final Destination was released on August 28, 2009. Lastly, Final Destination 5 was released on August 12, 2011. Final Destination 3 stars Mary Elizabeth Winstead and Ryan Merriman.

Teenager Wendy Christenson has a vision that she and her friends will get into a horrible roller-coaster accident. She freaks out right before the ride starts and is kicked off. Luckily most of her friends followed her and got off the ride.

Later, Wendy’s premonition comes true. The roller-coaster malfunctions and kills the remaining people on it. Of those remaining people was Wendy’s best friend Carrie and Wendy’s boyfriend, Jason, leaving Wendy heartbroken. Since Wendy cheated death, its now out for blood. You see death is a force that causes people to die in freak accidents. Now that Wendy knows this, she and Carrie’s boyfriend Kevin try to warn and save the rest of their classmates who got off the roller-coaster before they die in another one of death’s freak accidents.[6]

7. Simon Says (2006)

Simon Says (2006)

Simon Says is a 2006 horror film, and stars Crispin Glover, and Margo Harshman. The film premiered on September 24, 2006. A creepy gas station attendant stalks and kills five unsuspecting teenagers at a campground. The five teens are Kate, Zach, Vicky, Riff, and Ashley. They are on their way to dig for gold during their spring break vacation.

But then they take a wrong turn. The gas station attendant is named Simon who has a twin brother named Stanley. The teens wander inside a store where they meet Simon and Stanley. Simon is not very helpful, so the teens grow frustrated and leave. They find a campground and settle in. Then members of the group start getting killed. Simon stalked them all the way to the campground and is picking them off one by one. The only remaining teen left is Kate who has to fight for her life against this sadistic serial killer.[7]

8. Prom Night (2008)

Prom Night (2008)

Prom Night is a 2008 horror remake of the original of the same name. That movie starred Jamie Lee Curtis. It was about a teenager getting revenge on the kids that he blamed for his little sisters’ death at the prom. That Prom Night premiered in 1980. This remake has a completely different plot: the film star Brittany Snow and Johnathan Schaech. This movie is about a teenager named Donna Kapple who goes to her senior prom hoping to have a fun night. But her prom quickly turns into a nightmare when an obsessed stalker from her past shows up to pay her visit. Donna Kapple is a high school senior looking forward to her upcoming prom. It’s been quite a while since Donna was happy because her teacher Richard Fenton murdered her parents and younger brother. He had become obsessed with Donna.

Her parents tried to get a restraining order, but most of the time those don’t even work. He broke into the house and killed them all while Donna was at the movies with a friend. They wouldn’t tell him where she was so he stabbed them to death. By the time Donna got home, her father and brother were already dead. She hid under her bed and had to watch as Fenton stabbed her mother to death. Now that it’s prom time, Donna hopes to have the best night of her life. However, it turns out to be the worst night of her life when Fenton escapes the mental ward and shows up at her prom. Prom Night was released on April 11, 2008.[8]

9. The Grudge 2 (2006)

Scary Horror Movies - The Grudge 2 (2006)

The Grudge 2 is a 2006 horror film and the second installment in the franchise. It stars Amber Tamblyn, and Sarah Michelle Gellar, Jenna Dewan, Arielle Kebble, and Teresa Palmer to name a few. The film was released on October 13, 2006. The film is about a woman named Aubrey who flies all the way to Tokyo to find her missing sister who is under a terrible curse. It all dates back to The Grudge which was released on October 22, 2004. Aubrey’s sister Karen and her boyfriend were staying in a house in Tokyo. What they didn’t know was that anybody who stays in the house is subject to a curse. You see a family once lived in the house.

The wife was murdered by her husband because he found out she was in love with another man. He also killed their son. Then he was killed by the ghost of his son. So now the family of ghosts haunt the house and put a terrible curse on anybody who dares to live inside it. That unlucky person that ended up moving into the haunted house was Karen who was working as a social worker.

Karen was put in the hospital after trying to burn the house down to get rid of the curse. Aubrey visits her in the hospital where Karen gets hysterical trying to explain the evil. Aubrey is asked to leave. Soon after Karen is chased by one of the ghosts until she ends up on the roof, she ends up falling to her death right in front of Aubrey and her boyfriend. So now Aubrey has to figure out how to get rid of the curse before she falls prey to it as well.[9]

10. Orphan (2009)

Orphan (2009)

Orphan is a 2009 horror film. It stars Vera Farmiga, Peter Sarsgaard, Isabelle Fuhrman, C.C.H. Pounder, and Johnathan Bennett. A couple with two children decide to adopt a third child after their unborn baby daughter is stillborn. So they adopt a 9-year-old girl named Esther. Esther seems sweet at first, but she’s actually a dangerous serial killer who’s mentally unstable. Kate and John Coleman were expecting their third child, a girl, named Jessica.

Jessica ends up being stillborn leaving John and Kate heartbroken. It begins to take a toll on their marriage as well. So they decide to adopt a third child. They think Esther would be a good fit. Esther seems normal and sweet at first then her dark side begins to show. Kate becomes seriously terrified for her family. So she digs into Esther’s past and gets more than she bargained for. Now Kate has to save her family from this deranged killer before its too late.[10]

10 Most Controversial Nobel Peace Prize Winners

Controversial nobel peace prize winners Yasser Arafat

Did you know that Adolf Hitler was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1939? Well, he’s not on this list because he didn’t win the award. The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the highest honors this world has to offer. It showcases that a person or institution has pushed the world in some way shape or form to become a more peaceful place. The official requirement to garner this accolade, according to the will of Arthur Nobel, reads like this; “those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind.” So it is not the easiest thing to win and those that do have outdone themselves in their efforts. Many great names in history have received this honor including Theodore Roosevelt, Nelson Mandela, and Mother Teresa. These individual’s accomplishments are well known and respected by most people throughout the world. But not everyone who wins the award is considered worthy.

Just because you receive the award does not mean you will be immune from contention. Several Nobel Peace Prizes have been given out, and there are a good number of people that believe some of them should be given back. Whether there has been links in the past to violence or their achievements containing significant factual errors, sometimes the decisions the committee makes can come off as naive or short-sighted. While this is rare, it has happened enough times for people to notice. Here are ten controversial winners of the highly coveted Nobel Peace Prize.

1. Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger

The first bad boy of Nobel Peace Prize winners is Danish Scientists Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger. He discovered that feeding cockroaches, who were infected with a particular species of worm, to rats would ultimately induce abnormal cell growth. This led the scientist to believe that these worms caused cancer. After 16 nominations, Fibiger was awarded the peace prize in 1926. But a closer look at this odd scientific discovery would unveil that something was not right.

About a decade later it was discovered that his findings were actually wrong and the worms were not the cause of cancer.[1] They only added to the tissue damage. The cause of the cancer was determined to be a lack of vitamin A. Even the Nobel Prize award committee for medicine confirmed that Fibiger’s conclusions were very inaccurate. This reveal didn’t happen until 2004.[2]

2. European Union

controversial nobel peace prize-winners European Union

The recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize can be by a person or institution. The EU definitely qualifies as an institution, but apparently, their efforts in the advancement of peace, reconciliation, democracy, and human rights qualified them to take home the special prize in 2012. According to the committee the European Union has been contributing to the peace agenda for six decades despite at that time of receiving the honor Greece, Portugal, and Spain were engulfed in riots and protests.

The controversy in this one lies with the EU’s possible democratic deficit as well as its economic crisis. There is no denying the EU has been a solid contributor in the areas the Committee claimed was the reason for the victory. They have been crucial in uniting nations after both World Wars and have heavily participated with international aid efforts. So despite their accomplishments, the timing isn’t very great on this one, and that is the prime suspect behind all this controversy talk regarding the European Union’s win.[3]

3. Yasser Arafat

Controversial nobel peace prize winners Yasser Arafat

In 1994 the Nobel Peace Prize was shared amongst three individuals for their work on the Oslo Peace Accords. These three recipients were Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres, and Yasser Arafat. These Accords were thought to be a giant step forward in the right direction but turned out to be another failed attempt to stop one of the longest-running conflicts the world has ever seen.

The criticism here comes in two parts. One being that the accords are a failure. The other is that of Arafat. He has been linked to violence, bombings, hijackings, and assassinations. He has a long list of crimes that has led many to refer to the Palestinian leader as so-called “father of modern terrorism.” His critics have stated that he is the worst man ever to win the award. So the controversy surrounding Arafat’s victory is pretty warranted.[4]

4. Barack Obama

Barack Obama

Barack Obama is regarded by many as a great leader, and he has accomplished many great things in his tenure as Commander in Chief. In a surprise move, Obama was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize 12 days before he set up shop in the Oval Office back in 2009. He then won the coveted accolade just a few months into his first term. While the awards are supposed to be motivated by achievements revolving in and around world peace, this many felt was politically driven.[5]

The Committee claimed Obama deserved this honor because of his efforts in international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples on an extraordinary level. This all came as he raised the war effort in Afghanistan, the Pentagon accelerated delivery of the most lethal non-nuclear weapons arsenal to move against Iran if need be possibly, and he started a drone strike campaign that caused so many civilian casualties. The Nobel Secretary admitted in 2015 he regretted giving Obama the award.[6]

5. Henry Kissinger

Kissinger is easily one of the most notoriously controversial recipients of the Nobel Peace Prize ever. Kissinger served as the US Secretary of State during the Nixon and Ford presidencies. He won the award in 1973 with North Vietnamese Leader Le Duc Tho. The North Vietnamese leader rejected the award for two reasons. He did not think that peace had been achieved and did not desire at all to share the prize with Kissinger.[7]

Kissinger’s win has had some serious ramifications. In protest of the win, two of the members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee resigned. Besides Le Duc Tuo’s two reasons for not wanting the award, there are two main reasons for the controversy surrounding Kissinger’s name on the list of Nobel Peace Prize Winners. He was allegedly linked to secret bombings in Cambodia by America. This war crime accusation didn’t sit well with Kissinger as he accepted the honor with humility. The win could also be considered premature. Two years later the North invaded the South in Vietnam making all the previous work toward peace for absolutely nothing.[8]

6. Fritz Haber

Fritz Haber

The winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1918 was one Fritz Haber. He received the honor for having made significant discoveries in the field of chemistry. His method involved synthesizing ammonia. This process is used to assist in food growth along with the aid of synthetic chemical fertilizer. This ability is believed to be the reason why 30-40 percent of the Earth’s population is alive today.[9] While this is an excellent contribution to the world, he is also known for being linked to some pretty heinous war crimes.

Before he changed the world and kept global starvation at bay, he was involved with poisonous chlorine gas. This poison in which he assisted in the development of, went on to kill more than 1.3 million people in the first World War. Haber himself lobbied heavily for it to be used. His wife killed herself not long after the first chemical attack. He still received the Cross despite all the blood on his hands.[10]

7. Harald zar Hausen

Harald Zar Hausen

Probably the least famous of anyone that has made this list is that of Harald zar Hausen. This has a lot to do with the fact that the controversy more so surrounds the win than the winner. Hausen had received the award in 2008 for being the one who discovered that HPV causes cervical cancer. Because of this, a pharmaceutical company named AstraZeneca benefited directly from Hausen’s win because of the massive monetary stake they had with two lucrative HPV vaccines. It was also later revealed that a member of the Nobel Medical Prize Jury also sat on the board of AstraZeneca.[11] This led to an investigation probe conducted by the Swedish anti-corruption police. The investigation did not prove anything shady went down. AstraZeneca denies allegations to this day even though the popular opinion is they bought that Nobel Peace Prize.[12]

8. Rigoberta Menchú

Rigoberta Menchu

Rigoberta Menchú wrote a powerful biographical account of her life as a Mayan which specifically involved her experiences with the genocide of the indigenous Guatemalan people that unfortunately occurred in the ‘70s and ‘80s. The book that was published in 1982 initially would go on to be translated into twelve different languages. It was once considered to be the first legitimate account of the terrible atrocities that occurred against the Mayans. This inevitably led to her winning the Nobel Peace Prize in 1992 for her book, I, Rigoberta Menchu.

American anthropologist David Stoll later unveiled that Menchu had stretched the truth to make her story emotionally resonate with people. While Stoll didn’t question her award, it is known that Menchu’s take on what happened was not a realistic portrayal of what actually went down.[13]

9. Cordell Hull

Cordell Hull

In 1945 Cordell Hull was the recipient of the Nobel Prize in Peace. He received the honor for his efforts in the Western Hemisphere regarding peace and understanding. His trade agreements and the work he did to establish the United Nations was also a factor. While these are definitely solid qualifications for the award, there are some things Hull was known for that directly contradict what this accolade stands for.

The ship called the SS St Louis sailed out of Hamburg into the Atlantic Ocean with more than 950 refugees of Jewish descent on their way to America seeking safety from Nazi persecution. This went down in 1939 just before World War II. Roosevelt was ready to let the ship in. But Hull, who was known for his antisemitism, advised against it leaving them without a safe haven. This led to these poor souls having to take the long journey back to Germany where they met the wrath of the Nazis. Many of the passengers went on to die in concentration camps.[14]

10. António Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz

António Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz

When someone thinks about the lobotomy, the last thing they think of is this awful act having any correlation to the Nobel Peace Prize. They’d be wrong. It is something seen in movies and TV shows as something done by villainous characters. So when the inventor if this horrific procedure received this prestigious award, it was the epitome of controversy.

António Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz was the man behind the lobotomy procedure. He won a share of the award in 1949 for his development of this particular surgery.[15] But since its inception, many have argued that this process has caused more harm than good.[16] While this process has been made illegal in Russia and America, the Committee stands by their decision with the lobotomy.

Top 10 Most Romantic Birds in the World

romantic birds Swans

While most people struggle to express their love, on odd occasions that we see people displaying affection and we call them lovebirds. These cute little birds have literally lost their name as most people assume it is just a metaphor for romantic humans. However, some species of birds are capable of expressing their love even better than the lovebirds themselves. These birds pull off the most beautiful romantic moves on earth to get a soulmate and keep them. Some of them also develop a mysterious, romantic bond with their mates that cannot be explained scientifically. There is no better way of celebrating valentine’s day than taking a few tips from these ten most romantic birds on the planet.

1. Albatrosses

Romantic Birds - Albatrosses

This is probably the only animal species that has zero divorces in their lifetime. Albatrosses are seabirds spending most of their life fishing, swimming and navigating but love is what they do best. All Albatrosses lay only one egg a year on dry land and take care of the chick for nine months. Once the chick is weaned, it spends up to 6 years at sea before feeling the urge to mate after which it traces it’s way back to its nesting site. All agemates meet on land and break into a dance to select a partner. They change from one mate to another testing each other’s moves until they meet a partner that matches their desired dance moves.

They dance in pairs staying close to each other with beaks pointed to the sky stroking from time to time. The males open up the full length of their 12-foot wings displaying the most heavenly dance ever. Every couple generates unique moves with their legs and neck. The dances can continue for up to 10 years before the male earns mating rights. No mating happens until the pair generate their own unique dance. Once the partners agree on their dance, they bond and create their nests for the first mating. They do not stay together all the time, but when the time for mating comes, both partners miraculously find each other and create a nest. Their marriages continue until death although the males may mate with other partners every now and then. The partners may stay together for over 50 years raising chicks together every year.[1]

2. Lovebirds

Lovebirds romantic birds

The romance in the life of this parrot species has inspired scientists and poets for centuries. They have a unique taste for mates that literally determine their lives both in the wild and when domesticated. Lovebirds reach mating age after 9 or 10 months during which they meet their life partner. They cannot live without their partner after this stage, they groom, feed each other and share parenting tasks until death. The courtship process involves a special kind of closeness as the two birds spend all the time together except when collecting food and nesting material. They feed each other and share affectionate pecks most of the time developing a unique bond. If one partner is taken away or dies, the birds express erratic behavior similar to mourning or depression in human beings. When reunited after a long time of being apart, these birds reignite the bond by feeding each other and grooming all the time. They are literally the best expression of perfect love.[2]

3. The Great Hornbill

The Great Hornbill

There is love, but then there is Great Hornbill love! Great hornbills are monogamous, and a single partnership may last their whole lifetime. They reach mating age after five years. The 5-year bachelorhood is a training stage during which the males learn to attract females and be good fathers. The process of being chosen as a father even after the five years is still a very hard one. The males have to hunt and select the best fruits for the females to deem them, worthy fathers. The suitors then line up with their choice of fruits waiting for the choosey lady to make a selection. The suitors sometimes get aggressive, and fights may break out as they sing and chirp to get the lady’s attention.

The females may actually accept fruits from all the males at first, but this may not last, after some time, she will accept fruits from only one of the suitors. They then form a pair and go nest hunting. The male has to land on several trees he thinks will make a perfect home, but if the female does not agree, the search continues. Once the female agrees with a perfect nesting site, she seals herself inside to hatch the eggs, and the male has to feed her and the chicks for up to 12 weeks. This cycle continues for years as the male keeps the love alive through helping the female raise chick after chick every season.[3]

4. Bowerbirds

Bowerbirds

These are the masters of seduction in the animal kingdom. For bowerbirds, love is all about color and beauty. The ladies will not enter a man’s house until he proves himself as a perfect interior designer, and of course, call them in nicely. These birds have what scientists believe to be the most advanced courtship behavior of any bird. Their relationships are not monogamous like other romantic birds, but the males really have to earn each mating chance. Their ability to construct beautiful bowers are not the only thing that attracts females.

Male bowerbirds go out of their way to get a collection of colored objects and line them up in style to be noticed by the females. The great bowerbirds mostly use blue as their color of choice, and it really works for them. The final array of the bower has to be more attractive than other competitors for the female to approach. Sometimes the males sneak in and destroy the competitors’ bowers to reduce the competition. The beauty is not all it takes though; the male has to put in some music to attract the female. Sometimes a female will approach, but if other suitors have done better, she will fly off.[4]

5. Sage Grouse

Sage Grouse

Sage grouse females go shopping for their perfect man, and to be the best; he really has to put in the dance of the century. Sage grouse mating seasons are a great tourist attraction in North America. They live in tall sage brushes most of their lives, but when mating time comes, all males move to open grounds such as dry lake beds and burned out places for their dance to be seen. They then start dancing showing off their puffed yellow balloon-like porches inflating and deflating it to produce a swishing sound. As the dance peaks, the females approach their choice for mating. Funny enough, the girls may choose only one guy in the whole lek. They all mate with him leaving the other strugglers on the lek with no mates. The males, however, have nothing to do with the parenting, they offer the romance and leave the girls to do the hard job.[5]

6. The Birds of Paradise

The Birds of Paradise

The birds of paradise are one of the greatest wonders of the animal kingdom. Scientists tried for years to get a perfect video of a bird of paradise mating dance, and when they did, it totally changed the human approach to romance. Their spectacular 42 species mostly found in the forests of New Guinea have shocked scientists for decades. Their mating season brings out the romance never seen anywhere in the world. The males start by cleaning their patch to make a perfect dance floor. The cleaning is thorough; the birds literally shake trees for any loose leaves that may fall while they attract their mates. Before giving the display for the females, the males make a call of a lifetime with a screeching cry that reaches the farthest ends of the forest.

Sometimes they practice out their attractive turns even before the mate approaches. When she finally arrives, she finds a clean patch and the most beautiful breakdance of the animal kingdom. The males roll out their wings and combine them with neck feathers to form a beautiful ring around their heads which links perfectly with their beautiful heads and blue eyes. As they dance from side to side on their raised feet, they form a perfect rolling ring. The movements are accompanied by a calculated set of welcoming clapping sounds like the male dances around the female. This spectacular movement, however, is not an assurance of mating victory, the female may still move on to other suitors whom she deems better dancers, so the male has to really do his best.[6]

7. Flamingos

Romantic birds Flamingos

How well can you locate your lady or man from a crowd of hundreds that look just like them after hours of dancing? Well, the flamingos know it. They live in colonies, but when mating time comes, they form groups ranging from dozens to hundreds just to dance. Before the mating seasons, flamingos apply “make up,” the pink shade they obtain from a compound called carotenoid, to look attractive. Their complicated group dance starts with a wing salute. They then make other uniform dances with their heads and wings including a one-leg dance before breaking into the most coveted nature of the flamingos, the match!

The birds create synchronized movements with their feet and necks forming a spectacle or pink patterns as they move uniformly. Scientists have confirmed that flamingos have hundreds of moves and the one with the unique ones is most likely to get a mate. Their relationships are monogamous, but the exact selection of a particular mate is hard to explain. All scientists know is that a decided female move away from the crowd and the chosen male follows leaving the rest to fight on. They are not sure how the guy knows he has won in the first place.[7][8]

8. Swans

romantic birds Swans

Apart from Albatrosses, this is the other bird species believed to be most faithful in marriage. Swans are social, and their first love becomes their soulmate forever. They are the worst affected species when they lose their partner; most females literally don’t eat if their male partners are taken away. Swans are famous for their “kisses” and the beautiful heart shape they form when courting, but this is not all about them. Unlike common myth that mute swans are silent, all swans are noisy when courting and incredibly romantic. They have a perfect courtship dance involving swinging necks in symmetrical movements testing each other out. Once they form a bond, the male and female are married for life. They continue their romantic stunts decades into their marriage during which they help each other build nests and feed their young.[9][10]

9. Adelie Penguins

Adelie Penguins

The art of selecting the best gift is one of the best displays of romance and penguins also have to choose the best gifts to win a mate. While other birds like great hornbills present food, Adelie penguin males are tasked with selecting the best rocks from the millions on the seashore. The mating season kicks off with the males reaching the mating site first and reconstructing their previous season’s nest. New fathers have to make several runs to pick the best rocks, sticks and other enticing objects to build a new nest. For the male’s nest to be noticed, it has to be made of more attractive materials than all neighboring males and be spacious enough for the lady.

The female may go back to their previous season male’s nest to check if it still meets her needs, if he falls short, she quickly moves on to other males. This effort is however not all it takes to win the girl; the males have to be prepared for the long season of fathering. If the male is not fattened enough on the belly, the female fears that he will have to run off many times for food giving less attention to the eggs. For the Adelie penguins, the man just has to prove himself. Otherwise, there is a whole lot of options for the lady to choose from. Once mating is done, the female takes the nest, lays the eggs and leaves the male to lays on the eggs for two months until they hatch. The father still has to help with parenting.[11][12]

10. Clarke’s Grebes

Clark

These are the birds that “catwalk” on the water in their courtship dances. Both western Grebes and Clarke’s Grebes are very romantic in courtship, but the later is the best of them all. Grebes live in water, and while they are semi-monogamous, every relationship is full of love. They are proud showy birds and their courtship is never complete until the male puts up with the female in a beautiful but rather complicated dance. There are more males than females, so the females hold the final decision on the choice of the mate. The courtship process involves two main stages; the first is the rushing stage involving quick synchronized marathons through the water creating a spectacular set of waves. The birds form a pattern during the runs stopping every now and then for a peck and a cuddle before picking the play again.

The second stage is called the weeding stage, and it is all about gifts and dance. The male provides a collection of weeds to the female, and they dance around in synchronized movements showing off their beautiful white underbelly over the water. Every time they dance, the male and the female stretch over the water and dance with their necks raised touching each other until they form perfect moves. If the male suits the female’s choice, she mates with him for the season and they stay together until the eggs hatch. He however only helps with the parenting for a few weeks.[13]

10 of the Worst Epidemics Throughout History

Worst Epidemics Throughout History - The Spanish Flu Outbreak

Many apocalyptic events have tested humanity, but the worst of them all came from diseases we could not treat. The thought of a single disease outbreak wiping out the entire human population is scary but hard to ignore because of what has happened in the past. Some of these Outbreaks forced people to run from their loved ones and even kill some of them to stay alive. With little research and inadequate health facilities, controlling the outbreaks was almost impossible. Some of these epidemics wiped out cities, nations and even nearly wiped out a whole continent. Most of these diseases have since been put under control by medical discoveries over the years but not without causing much pain and suffering.

1. The Black Death

The Black Death

The first record of the black death in Europe traces back to 12 ships that docked at the port of Sicily in October 1347. Most sailors on board were dead, the living ones were weak and covered in mysterious boils. The ships became what the historians called the fleet of death as people started dying a few days later despite the Sicilian authorities having forced the vessel to leave. The disease had already ravaged Syria, India, China, and Egypt since the early 14th century but Europe was totally unprepared for it. It spread through fleas that came from black rats carrying the deadly Yersinia pestis bacteria. This is still the worst catastrophe in history known to have wiped out up to 50 million people in Europe. It changed cities both economically and socially as people spent most of their time burying the dead.

The plague terrorized many medieval cities until the 17th century. However, the 14th-century outbreak was totally alarming. Historians spoke of healthy people that went to bed and were found dead the following day. There was no known cure for the infamous disease that resulted in mysterious boils, high fever, vomiting, diarrhea and finally an agonizing death. The people were forced to flee their families, especially in poor communities leaving church volunteers and the government to attend to them and bury them. People were dying at an alarming rate especially in port cities from Africa to Scandinavia. There was nearly no activity in Europe at the time as the labor force was almost wiped out. Years of research have, however, proven that the disease can be treated with antibiotics and of course rats can be killed.[1]

2. The Justinian Plague

The Justinian Plague

This was the first recorded occurrence of the plague caused by a different strain of the Yersinia bacteria. It affected Africa, Europe, and Asia killing up to 50 million people believed to be nearly one-quarter of the world population at the time. It struck during the reign of Emperor Justinian from 527 to 565 CE. The emperor was also infected, but he finally recovered from the disease, but most of the people in Constantinople did not. The epidemic peaked to 5000 deaths per day in the capital alone wiping out most of the active population.

It came from Egypt through grain ships and spread it to Constantinople and finally the rest of the Roman empire. The quick spread through the empire is linked to the shortage of grain during these years which led to high dependence on grain imported from North Africa. As more grain ships docked, more infected rats were brought to Europe and spread through the city in carts. The disease continued to haunt almost every generation for the next 225 years until its mysterious disappearance in 750CE.[2][3]

3. The Spanish Flu Outbreak

Worst Epidemics Throughout History - The Spanish Flu Outbreak

It is hard to imagine that flu, hardly feared as a dangerous killer today, nearly wiped out humanity in the 20th century. In 1918, people across America, Asia, and Europe started showing symptoms of the flu, and most of them died with hours or days. The disease spread to the rest of the world in months infecting over 500 million people. More than 645,000 Americans were killed in this outbreak. It is believed to have killed over 30 million people across the world. This disease actually killed more American soldiers in the first world war than the battle itself. The navy was the worst affected as soldiers traveled in closed spaces in the ships.

The name “Spanish flu” resulted from the 8 million deaths in Spain from the disease where even the king himself was infected. There was no vaccine at the time, and most doctors mistook this for a bacterial infection. Tests over the years, however, confirmed that it was a strain of the Influenza virus allowing the creation of a vaccine in 1940 which reduced the spread of the flu in World War 11.[4]

4. The Third Cholera Pandemic

There is no perfect record of cholera deaths, but since its first major outbreak in the early 19th century, cholera has killed more people than any other waterborne disease. Cholera kills nearly 143,000 people every year according to WHO but the numbers were catastrophic in the 19th century. There are seven major cholera outbreaks recorded in history with the first one tracing back to the Ganges delta, India in 1817. Coincidently, the third pandemic, which was the deadliest, also originated in India in the mid-19th century killing at least 1 million people.

The numbers were probably way higher because medical records were not kept efficiently at the time. The disease spread through Asia into Europe, North America, and Africa because of the interconnecting world. The poor sanitation in the cities made the effects worse killing 10,000 people in London alone in 1854. Twenty-three thousand people died in Great Britain. Jon Snow, a British epidemiologist, discovered contaminated water as the cause of the disease allowing the world to combat its spread in the subsequent years.[5][6]

5. The Third Plague Pandemic

The plague never stopped with the black death; it came back several times until the 17th century. It then disappeared but then came back again in China the 1850s killing over 12 million people. Despite originating in Yunnan, China, the worst-hit country was India, then a British colony, where over 10 million people were killed. This is the plague’s most recent appearance, now called the third plague. The mining site where it started is believed to have been harboring the disease-carrying yellow breast rats although the governments were not prepared for any such outbreak at the time. In fact, no one even expected this deadly disease ever to come back. Yunnan had a population of over 7 million at the time because of the mineral deposits in the area. The miners spread the fleas through Hong Kong from where it found its way to Bombay, now Mumbai, causing India’s worst epidemic that century. The disease was later contained through quarantines and Waldemar Haffkine’s plague vaccine.[7]

6. The Cocoliztli Epidemics

The Cocoliztli Epidemics

The Aztec kingdom was an established empire in what is modern-day Mexico long before the Spanish reached the Americas. When the Europeans came, they brought Influenza, measles, smallpox, and mumps that wiped out most of the natives reducing the once 30 million strong Aztecs to just 2 million. The Aztecs had their own diseases and problems, but when the Europeans came, they brought them new pathogens that their bodies had never experienced and hence had no immunity against.

The people had no name nor treatment for these new killers, so they just named them cocoliztli, the native name for pestilence. The first wave of the cocoliztli epidemic came in 1545 mostly believed to have been caused by smallpox. It killed up to 8 million people, most of whom lived inland and had never met the Europeans. The second wave of measles which came with most of the wars wiped out the rest of the people.[8]

7. The Antonine Plague

The Antonine Plague

The Antonine plague wiped out nearly 30% of the Roman empire population. It spanned from modern-day Greece, Spain, and Italy but no one really knows what caused the disease. Some scholars claim it was measles while some sources associate it with smallpox. This plague was not as devastating as the Justinian plague, but it is highly linked to the death of the 2 Roman emperors. Lucius Verus and Marcus Aurelius were co-regents when the disease struck, Verus died in AD 169 while Aurelius followed just over a decade later. It is believed to have been brought by Verus’ troops while returning from the war in Asia Minor. As the soldiers settled through the cities, the disease spread leaving bodies in the streets at an alarming rate.

The best-known records are from the historian Gallen who gave descriptions of fever, boils both dry and wet and finally death within nine days of contracting the disease. The plague forced Marcus Aurelius to postpone his advances on the Germanic tribes in AD 167. It is actually believed that this plague reduced the imperial forces so much that the emperors were forced to recruit peasants to strengthen their forces. Whatever caused the disease, hope it never comes back![9][10]

8. The WWI Typhus Outbreak

The flu was not the only killer disease in WW1, as it turned out, Typhus had even more devastating effect on the eastern front. Unlike plague which spreads through black rat fleas, typhus can be transmitted from one person to another through lice. The outbreak of typhus during the war was no mystery; it had happened before even preventing Napoleon’s advance on Russia. The spread on the eastern front started in 1915 with the Austrian prisoners of war who were held in camps in Belgrade under poor sanitation and low medical supply.

As half of the prisoners succumbed to the disease, the doctors and soldiers caught it too turning Serbia into a death zone that scared both the Russians and the Germans. The disease however spread into Russia by 1917 infecting millions of people which weakened the army. The Germans, in turn, moved westwards because of the weakened Russian forces which actually saved them because the disease would have spread to the western front as well.[11]

9. The Asian Flu Pandemics

Asian Flu epidemic

These were the second and third wave of Influenza which was less severe than the Spanish flu. These strains of Influenza had undergone a mutation and become more resistant. The third wave occurred in 1968 also originating in China. The two waves jointly resulted in 3 to 6 million deaths globally. Its first occurrence was reported in China in 1957. It had been over one decade since licensing of the first influenza vaccine, but the new strains were resistant and more aggressive than the first one.

The spread was quickly leading over 100,000 deaths by the end of that year. It spread into the US causing nearly 70,000 deaths in 1959. Unlike the Spanish flu which attacked people across all age brackets, the Asian flu virus mostly struck children, old people, and pregnant women. The doctors were, however, able to contain both outbreaks just like the first one.[12][13]

10. HIV/AIDs Pandemic

HIV/AIDs Pandemic

This is probably the worst pathogen that has ever attacked humanity. Besides being hard to tame, HIV was hard to detect making its spread more rapidly in the early days through the ignorant victims. The exact origin of HIV has not been identified, but scientists believe it came from chimpanzees in West Africa. When it was first reported in the 60s, it was thought to affect only gay men, a theory that was disapproved a few years later. The disease caused a lot of panic in the late 19th century as people in some places were even afraid of greeting each other in fear of the disease.

Since its first diagnosis, HIV has infected over 70 million people, half of whom were confirmed dead by the end of 2018. With no cure and rapid degradation of the immune system, this disease has proved deadlier than the plague killing over 40million people over the years. The bulk of the deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa where 41% of the adult population is believed to be living with the disease. However, modern medical advances have proven helpful in reducing the spread of the virus and elongating the life of the victims.[14][15]

10 of the Most Dangerous Animals in the World

most dangerous animals Golden Poison Dart Frog

The animal kingdom is full of many wondrous creatures. All of them beautiful in their own way and contribute to the ever-evolving circle of life. Some are gorgeous to look at, and some make people laugh. Most animals exist in harmony with the world around them and can be approached with ease. They enjoy the attention and making new friends. But not every one of these entities is all nice and loving. Some of them are among the most dangerous things to encounter in the entire world.

Not all these beasts look like the stuff of horror films. Some are even cute and cuddly. Not every vicious creature looks like a monster; some look like something out of a cartoon. While sharks and lions may be the stereotypical predator, jellyfish and frogs are also some of the most formidable creatures someone could ever encounter. But the thing to remember is that these animals are not to be trifled with or underestimated. They are incredibly deadly and could be the last thing a person sees. Of all the beautiful animals that make up the vast animal kingdom, here is a list of the ten most dangerous that should not be your next pet.

1. Black Mamba

most dangerous animals - Black Mamba

Snakes are always considered to be creepy and reviled amongst society. While some people have them as pets, not every species of snake is housebroken. Some of these slithering serpents are actually very dangerous. The King Cobra and boomslang are a threat because of the poisons they contain. They can kill a person if not quickly or properly treated. But the snake that everyone should truly avoid is the Black Mamba. It also has poison like the King Cobra, but what sets this guy apart from the rest of the pack is its speed.

Located in the Savannas and Africa, these bad boys can grow up to 14 feet long and move at incredibly fast speeds. The Black Mamba clocks in at 12.5 miles per hour which makes outrunning one very difficult. They usually only attack when they feel threatened so avoiding them at all costs is probably the safest way to continue one’s lifespan. And when they hit, they hit hard biting their prey or attacker several times. A single bite has enough poison to kill up to ten people. Once bitten a person has a 20-minute window to receive the antivenin or it is lights out.[1]

2. Blue-ringed Octopus

most dangerous animals Blue-ringed Octopus

An Octopus doesn’t necessarily look like the friendliest creature on Earth but one still should probably avoid them as one of the species of this sea dweller is considered to be the most venomous animal on Earth. The Blue Ringed Octopus isn’t just a poison powerhouse; it is also a master of disguise. They use iridescent blue rungs and brown patches that adapt to there surrounding. And they aren’t that big, with most just being the size of a golf ball. But this camouflaged little guy packs a serious punch.

They contain a toxin that is 1200 times more deadly than cyanide. This toxin has tetrodotoxin in it which is a neurotoxin that is definitely capable of killing human beings. If breathing is assisted after the venom from the octopus has been introduced into the system a person can wait out the venom to metabolize in the body, but some severe side effects will occur including blindness and paralysis. But nothing else can really be done as no antidote exists to help anyone hit with the poison.[2]

3. Tsetse Fly

Tsetse Fly

Flies are a nuisance, and most of us wish they would just leave us alone. While a fly is not necessarily harmful to an individual, they can spread disease and indicate that things are rotten. Some of these flying inconveniences can be fatal if one tries to swat them and misses. The fly in question that could be the scariest thing to find out about for some people is the Tsetse fly. Experts often regard it at the world’s most dangerous fly. This 8-17 mm size insect is usually found in the Sudan, Congo, and Angola. These little guys don’t just bite people during feeding time leaving a red bump to scratch away at. They are leaving something much deadlier behind.

They spread protozoan parasites known as Trypanosomes. They are microscopic pathogens that can cause African sleeping sickness. If untreated it can cause death. And there are no antidotes or vaccines for these little monsters. Avoiding the Tsetse fly altogether is the best way to survive. They are so small and hard to avoid in in the areas they happen to be during feeding times. If they can be avoided, they should be.[3]

4. Saltwater Crocodile

Saltwater Crocodile

Alligators and crocodiles are definitely some of the most dangerous creatures in the animal kingdom. Wherever they live, they are more than likely to stir up trouble and sink their massive teeth into someone that got too curious for their own good. But one member of the extended croc family makes the list as one of the most dangerous animals would be the Saltwater Crocodile. It is the largest and most dangerous of the species. And it is short-tempered and easily provoked. It has no problem giving anyone passing by a shot at the title.

They can grow up to be 23 feet long and can literally weigh more than a ton. These killer creatures are known to take out hundreds of people every year. Their numbers help crocodiles garner more kills than sharks overall annually. Their bite delivers a whopping 3700 pounds per square inch which rivals that of a dinosaur people may have heard of called the T-Rex. People bite into a steak at 200 pounds per square inch. So putting it in perspective, the Saltwater Crocodile’s bite is absolutely much worse than his bark.[4]

5. Clostridium Botulinum

Clostridium Botulinum

Clostridium Botulinum is considered to be the most toxic animal on the entire planet. This one is definitely one of the worst things to make this list. One study even indicated that just a year teaspoon of this deadly bacterium is so powerful that it can kill everyone in the United States. And if someone wanted to wipe out every single person on the planet, they would only need 9 pounds to do so. This bad boy targets the brain and the nervous system. It is found all over the planet on soils that came from the ocean floor. It mostly lies dormant, but when it kicks in, there is no stopping it. There has been no case of any animal serving it. Processed goods, home canned goods, and honey are some of the culprits that could contain this beast. Children are most at risk so stay alert people.[5]

6. Box Jellyfish

Box Jellyfish

Anyone that has ever been stung by a jellyfish knows that it is something they would rather not experience twice. The one things people are on the lookout for when walking along the sandy beaches are those alien-like creatures that go out of their way to shock you every time they come in contact with you. While the common jellyfish is a frightening beast, there is another species of these mystical looking creatures that is one of the most dangerous on the planet. The box jellyfish is considered by some of the most venomous marine animals in the entire world.

This almost invisible floating monster can move at up to five miles per hour. It is mostly found occupying the waters in the Indo-pacific north of Australia. Their box shape frame has up to fifteen tentacles that are called nematocysts. They have toxins in them that attack the heart, skin cells, and the nervous system all at the same time. If stung there are antivenins for the sting, but most people drown from the initial side effects before being able to reach the shore. And if one is lucky to get the antidote it has been reported that severe pain continues for the victim weeks after the initial sting.[6]

7. Great White Shark

Great White Shark

The Great White shark is a no brainer for this list. Any Shark is dangerous, and most of them would make this list if it were any longer. But the Great White is one of the most lethal creatures this world has ever seen. This sharp-toothed beast has been around longer than most predators spanning back to the early Eocene eras and has had a very long time to acquire enough natural killer instincts to be considered a real-life monster. They have been known to attack anything that threatens them or looks like a snack. They are attracted by blood and really anything that floats around them. These legendary predators will take a bite out of anything and can grow up to 14 feet. But one silver lining in all this is they don’t like bones in their meals. So with humans, they’ll take a deadly bite and usually swim away, so there’s that.[7]

8. Cone Snail

Cone Snail

The Cone Snail is probably the most beautiful creatures on this list of deadly animals. They contain a very recognizable brown and white marble shell. This snail can be up to 4 to 6 inches long. They can be found in the warm tropical waters like the Carribean, Indonesia, and Hawaii. But while this seems like the kind of thing a person would want to take a selfie while on vacation, they should be avoided at all costs. Cone Snails have harpoon-like teeth that contain a venom called conotoxin. This makes them the deadliest snail in the animal kingdom. Only a handful have survived its sting as there is no antivenin in existence as of right now. Its nickname is the “cigarette snail” because one has enough time to smoke a cigarette before they expire.[8]

9. Cape Buffalo

There are about 900,000 Cape Buffalo in sub-Saharan Africa. These animals are usually very mild if left alone. If one is threatened they become the living embodiment of their fatal nickname which is Balck Death. While some would expect a buffalo to be one of the easier animals to hunt, this is not the case. They are apparently responsible for killing more hunters than any other animal on the continent. These almost six feet tall beasts circle their prey before charging at them at speeds around 35-miles per hour. They have even been known to go toe-2-toe with vehicles. If you mess with the Cape Buffalo, you will get the horns.[9]

10. Golden Poison Dart Frog

Golden Poison Dart Frog

Frogs are the lasts species anyone probably expected to make this list. They seem like lazy, carefree creatures that are only dangerous to flies. But not all tadpole dwellers are just hopping along without presenting any real threat to those around them. Some have the power to incapacitate humans with just a touch and indigenous tribes coat their poison on blow darts for hunting purposes. The frog that put its species on the map, well at least this list, is the Golden Poison Dart Frog.

These cute little guys make up a rather large diverse group of brightly colored frogs. They exist mostly in South America where only a few of the species are actually dangerous. The most deadly of these bad boys is the Golden Poison Dart Frog. These guys are located in the rain forest along Columbia’s Pacific coast. Each of these frogs has a poison that is so potent it could kill ten men. These guys are roughly the size of a paper clip but pack a serious punch in the poison department. If one sees this endangered species, it would be best to look and not touch.[10]

10 Interesting Facts About Nelson Mandela

Nelson Mandela

Today it is almost impossible to think of South Africa without mentioning Nelson Mandela. In fact, there is nearly no list of great world leaders that doesn’t contain his name, but his journey to fame wasn’t that easy. He rose from a poor herder known to the leader of ANC then called a terrorist organization then to the best president South Africa has ever known. This tough journey has some common facts known to all such as the Nobel prize in 1993, but some interesting underlying facts are rarely spoken of. With this list, as we remember this great man, we also get a view of the most interesting sides of Mandela’s life.

1. He was Friends with Muammar Gaddafi and Fidel Castro

Barack Obama referred to Nelson Mandela as the last great liberator of the 20th century, and many would agree. He, however, described Gaddafi and Fidel Castro as dictators that liberated their countries only to imprison the people in a different kind of bond. Nelson Mandela and his two friends lie on two opposite sides of leadership history. While Mandela is remembered as the man, who fostered democracy and willingly stepped down after his term as president, the later stay on the list as two of the worst dictators in history. Despite the paradox, Mandela himself confessed that there would be no South African democracy without Gaddafi. Their friendship is linked to Gaddafi’s support for ANC in money and weapons during their oppression by the Apartheid regime. The three remained friends even after NATO declared war on Gaddafi later deposing him. Maybe we don’t have to think the same way to be friends after all![1]

2. He Was on the US Terror Watch List Until 2008

This is a fact that the US government has tried to correct for years. It was an awkward position that associated the US government with support for Apartheid for years even though liberated South Africa is a great ally. His placement on the list was the idea of President Ronald Reagan in the 1980s. This was based on the fight against Apartheid during which Mandela and other ANC leaders resorted to armed resistance after the Sharpeville massacre.

This decision was even more embarrassing for the CIA especially in 1990 when the whole world stood behind Mandela after his release from prison. He proved himself as a peaceful man after quelling the racial tensions in South Africa even forgiving the leaders of the apartheid government. However, even after winning the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993, Mandela remained on the terrorist watch list for nearly two decades. Congress resorted to amending that position in 2008 passing a bill that was later approved by President George Bush.[2]

3. He Refused 4 Offers to Be Released From Prison

Mandela spent 27 years in prison, but he could have been released over a decade earlier. The first time he refused an offer to be released alone because this would definitely make him a traitor. He was given two more offers on the condition that he drops ties to ANC and agrees to abolish any armed resistance against apartheid. The most popular offer was the 1985 president Botha offer. He was offered a release because of the increased international pressure for the president to abolish Apartheid.

The offer however still recognized Mandela and ANC as terrorists who would mean he was released as a disgrace but Mandela was focused on the bigger picture. He maintained his position that The government provoked armed resistance by ANC and he would not accept any conditions that did not legalize political parties and also abolish apartheid. Eighteen other prisoners, however, accepted the offer including Dennis Goldberg, the only white prisoner serving a sentence for sabotage at the time. His defiance paid off five years later as he was released from prison as the most famous man in the world at the time.[3][4]

4. He Started the Famous ANC Military Wing

The Sharpeville massacre saw the apartheid government murder 69 unarmed civilians in cold blood. Most of them were high school students unarmed and harmless. As the world moaned with the black community in 1961, Mandela decided that enough was enough. He formed Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the nation), a front he would use to launch a militaristic resistance. He went out seeking financial and military support from Libya, Ethiopia, and Algeria. He had no military training himself, and neither did his followers. They acquired bombs and training for the fighters and clandestine operational support which led to the first stage of the industrial sabotage. He, however, didn’t plan to kill civilians, it was mostly about disrupting the government to get their attention. This move proved to be the turning point for Mandela and South Africa as a whole as he was declared a terrorist and subsequently arrested a year later.[5]

5. Most South Africans Could Not Recognize Him Before 1990

By the end of 1990, almost every person in South Africa knew Nelson Mandela, but this was not the case months earlier. As the leader of ANC, Mandela spent many days running and hiding from the authorities. He had been banned from interacting with more than one person at a time which meant he could not address public gatherings. To further reduce his publicity, the government prohibited photos of him from being published in the media. It was illegal to be found with a picture of Mandela making him a mythological figure.

Between 1963 when he was imprisoned in Robben Island and 1990 when he was finally released, the only thing people knew was his name. Before his release, he was taken on a drive by one of the prison guards in the white neighborhoods of cape town and surprisingly, no one even recognized him. Even when he was allowed to stroll on the beach after his treatment, the people on the beach didn’t even glance at him. He remained a hero in name only until the people attached an image during his public addresses in 1990. Hope they didn’t release the wrong Mandela though![6]

6. He Was Disguised a Chauffeur When He Was Arrested

Mandela’s exceptional ability to escape from the police earned him the name The Black Pimpernel after a novel character with secret identities. He transformed into whatever person the police would not be looking for. His famous disguises as a chef and chauffeur on various occasions allowed him to stay on the run for 17 months. The heat on him, however, increased after he left South Africa for London and other countries to seek international support for the newly established ANC military wing. When he returned in 1952, he met with Cecil Williams a fellow activist to plan more sabotage, but someone had already sold him out to police. When the cops pulled up on him, he did not run because he figured they would shoot him on the spot. He gave them the name David Motsomayi, whoever that was! They, however, knew they had their man, so the officers played along for a few moments before arresting Mandela on charges of using stolen identity, leaving the country without a passport and organizing illegal rallies.[7]

7. It Took Him 50 Years to Get a Law Degree

The law degree is probably the best thing Mandela received in prison, but it was five decades late. Mandela and Oliver Tambo established the first black law firm in Johannesburg, South Africa in August 1952. It helped black people accused by the apartheid regime to get some legal advice and help in court at the time when the government did not recognize them as equal human beings. However, Mandela didn’t have a law degree at the time. He used his 2-year law diploma to practice. He started studying law in 1939 at Fort Hare University where he was expelled two years later for starting a student riot.

He was later adopted by an attorney Lazar Skidelsky to work for him as an assistant while doing law as a correspondent course. The studies were on and off, but in 1943, he returned to the university and graduated with his BA before enrolling for the law degree. He was a terrible student though; he failed the final exams six times finally being denied a chance to retake in 1949. He failed several admissions and then got too involved in the resistance to continue studying. He eventually graduated in 1989 from prison.[8]

8. He Was Named Nelson by His Teacher

Nelson Mandela was born Rolihlahla Dalibhunga. His first name Rolihlahla is Xhosa for pulling down a branch from a tree or being a troublemaker, and he sure lived up to it. When he was taken to Elementary school after his father’s death, his teacher Miss. Mdingane could not pronounce the name, so she chose a Christian name for him. It was also a common practice for children to be given English names since the colonial era as most colonial masters could not pronounce Xhosa names. Miss Mdingane decided to call him Nelson after the British Sailor Lord Nelson. This name stuck with him and became part of his legacy entirely suppressing his original name. His other names Madiba and Tata are all part of the Xhosa clan affiliations.[9]

9. His First Job Was a Night Watchman

This marked one of the lowest points of Nelson Mandela’s life coming just after his expulsion from the university. When he got home after being expelled, Jongintaba, the Thembu chief who was his guardian after his father’s death had arranged a marriage for Mandela and his brother Justin. To escape the marriage, the brothers fled from the chief’s home to Johannesburg to look for a job. He met a fellow tribesman who got people jobs at a goldmine, and he helped him secure the position. He was given a club, a flashlight, a whistle and a round hat then assigned to search any black people coming to the mine for their pass. He also had to stand next to a dehumanizing sign labeled, “Beware, Natives crossing here.” It was however through this job that he met the ANC leaders and later became the local youth president.[10]

10. He Was a Great Leader Even in the Horrible Prison

The first years in Robben Island were hell for all the political prisoners. Interaction with the outside world was prohibited entirely with allowance for only two letters a year. They were forced to work in a quarry with shovels and picks until their hands bled. The food was also horrible; black prisoners were only allowed one spoon of sugar while Indians and transracial prisoners received two. The blacks were not allowed any bread during the first decade of their imprisonment. Despite the cold temperatures, black prisoners were restricted to shorts; long trousers were only given to Indians and white prisoners.

The oppression led to protests that resulted in beatings, but Mandela endured it equally with fellow prisoners despite being considered their leader even in prison. He called himself a commoner that did not deserve any special treatment. At one point, the prisoners went on a hunger strike to protest, and Mandela got sick and weak, but he refused the guards’ offer to be exempted from the labor. Mandela fostered the protests that saw things change later giving equal portions of food and clothing for all prisoners and even allowing them to watch television.[11]

10 of the Most Mysterious Hollywood Deaths

Mysterious Hollywood Deaths Marilyn Monroe

Hollywood is a place of glitz and glamour where the stars of the entertainment game truly shine. With all the studios and productions it is definitely a place of wonder. From the infamous sign in the hills to the walk of fame in its streets, it is indeed the place where dreams are made of. But unfortunately, that is not the case for every celebrity that makes it big in this town. While some shine bright into their golden years some of the beautiful people have had their career to stardom suddenly cut short. And some of them, to this day have not found justice.

After years of investigation and mass speculation, many celebrity deaths are still a mystery to this day. The studios in Hollywood are known for making some of the best mystery and noir films, but none of those made even come close to the real-life deaths that are still shrouded in mystery. So many famous peoples deaths have shocked the world, and millions have grieved over the years at the loss of life. But only a few remain extremely murky as to the who, what and why of how it all went down. To this day these are ten mysterious Hollywood deaths that have still gone unsolved.

1. Tupac Shakur

Mysterious Hollywood Deaths Tupac Shakur

Hip Hop artists are a dime a dozen that continue to pop up day in and day out with many of them being just a rough copy of one another giving no real substance to the genre. This, however, is not always the case. Some of these MC’s are the stuff of legends, and their work will inevitably transcend time. Their work will stay relevant many years after they are gone. One prime example of this is one Tupac Amaru Shakur. 2pac, as most people knew him, was one of the rap games most powerful and prolific voices ever. This made things so devastating when he was killed, and there is nobody behind bars for the crime.

Shakur was headed to a gig in Las Vegas when the unthinkable happened. He was in the car on the street when a car rolled up next to him and shot him four times. This drive-by shooting ended up taking the rappers life six days later in a hospital, and the mystery of who did it remains unsolved to this day. Tupac was gunned down in his prime leaving the world at the young age of 25. This was not just a tragedy for the music and movie world. This was a tragedy for the entire world.[1]

2. Natalie Wood

Natalie Wood

One of the most famous and talked about Hollywood murder mysteries revolves around the beautiful Natalie Wood. The actress first rose to prominence in 1947 when she played Susan Walker in Miracle on 34th Street. Then she wowed audiences with her performance as Maria in 1961’s Westside Story. She had been nominated for three Academy Awards by the time she was 25 for her work in the films Rebel Without a Cause, Splendor in the Grass, and Love With a Prop Stranger. So when she was found floating dead in the water in a nightgown, jacket, and socks, it was a devastating affair, to say the least.

Thirty-eight years ago Wood was out on a 55-foot yacht called the Splendor. Four adults ventured out that day, but all of them would not return alive. Apparently, Woods husband Robert Wagner and Christopher Walken argued the boat and Natalie went to bed. When Robert went to kiss his wife goodnight, she was nowhere to be found. The next morning they found her in the water lifeless. This was ruled an accident, but many are very skeptical on what really went down that night. 30 years after her death in 2011 the Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department reopened the case, but it is still unsolved.[2]

3. Notorious B.I.G.

Notorious B.I.G.

Tupac Shakur is not the only MC to have a death shrouded in mystery. Christopher Wallace aka The Notorious B.I.G. was a big name in Hip Hop. While Shakur was big on the West coast, Biggie ran the East coast hip hop scene. At first, the two were friends, but that soon turned into one of the genres biggest rivalry. And when Shakur was killed many speculated Biggie was involved, even though the rapper vehemently denies having any connection to the horrible act, despite the two being involved in hip hop war between east coast and west coast music factions, which is why what happened not much long after 2pac’s death was so shocking.

Besides both being two of the games best, the other thing Biggie has in common with 2pac is how they died. Wallace was also gunned down in a drive-by shooting. He was shot multiple times on March 6, 1997, just six months after the murder of Shakur. The rapper was leaving a party when it all happened. He was pronounced dead an hour later. Christopher Wallace was only 24 years old, and his killer is still at large.[3]

4. Bob Crane

Bob Crane

Bob Crane was a TV star made famous by the program known as Hogans Heroes. This series was top-rated and made Crane a very famous individual. But the one thing that outdid his TV fame was the hype surrounding his death mainly because it is still one of Hollywood’s biggest mysteries. Crane was found bludgeoned to death in an apartment in Scottsdale, Arizona.

In the film, Auto Focus it is revealed that Crane was a huge sex addict and he may have rubbed a good amount of people the wrong way in his lifetime. So finding the culprit with very little evidence and a long list of haters made this one a real head-scratcher. The case was reopened in 1990. This lead to Crane’s friend John Henry Carpenter to be tried for the crime. However, in 1994 he was acquitted of all charges leaving the murder still unresolved to this day.[4]

5. Elizabeth Short

Elizabeth Short

Elizabeth Short was like any other girl with a dream of being in the pictures. This hometown girl got on a bus and headed west with her heart set on making her dreams of becoming a big movie star true. This 22-year-old aspiring actress became one of the most famous actresses of the time for all the wrong reasons.

Short was the victim of a gruesome murder in Los Angeles that was sensationalized by the press. The poor girl was made famous after her tragic death and became a fixture in Hollywood known as the Black Dahlia. James Elroy published a popular neo-noir novel about the incident, and this real-life tragedy was also made into a 2006 film directed by none other than iconic cinema director Brian De Palma. This probably wasn’t what Short had in mind when she set out to become a famous celebrity.[5]

6. George Reeves

George Reeves

Everyone knows that Man of Steel can leap tall buildings in a single bound, can fly, and is absolutely bulletproof. So it was very ironic when the 45-year-old actor known for his work as the titular hero on the program The Adventures of Superman was found dead with a single gunshot wound to the temple. George Reeves was found naked in his Beverly Hills Home dead in his bed.

This all went down in 1959 and was the subject of the 2006 film Hollywoodland where Ben Affleck played Reeves. Mr. Reeves’s death has initially been ruled a suicide until his mother commissioned another investigation. It has been speculated that actress Toni Mannix, who was Reeves’s ex-lover, called in a hit on the Superman actor but it was never proven. To this day the world has no idea who killed Superman.[6]

7. Jack Nance

Jack Nance

Jack Nance was an actor known for working with filmmaker David Lynch. Fans will recognize him from such Lynch directed projects as Twin Peaks, Blue Velvet, and most notably of all Eraserhead. The films were very mysterious to everyday moviegoers and cinephiles alike, but the real mystery came when the actor was found dead. In 1996 on December 30th he was found lifeless, and the cause of death ended up being a subdural hematoma which was caused by blunt force trauma.

No one knows for sure what happened to Nance, but there are theories as to what could have happened. He could have been hit in the head and knocked to the ground in an altercation with two men at a local donut shop. Another theory people have speculated over the years is that he hurt himself while being intoxicated as his blood alcohol level was at 0.24 percent when he died. As of today, it remains a mystery.[7]

8. JonBenét Ramsey

JonBenet Ramsey

When the world loses a child, it is one of the worst tragedies a family can endure. And when this child is a beautiful angel that looks absolutely adorable in her pageant outfit that ends up murdered in her Colorado home, it was a big deal. This wrongful death took the world by storm and shocked anybody watching this awful event unfold. To lose a child is a horrible thing to experience and that’s why the murder of JonBenet Ramsey hit home for so many people. This case quickly became national news and is still talked about in length to this very day.

Many strange things began to unravel in this twisted tale of child murder. Ramsey’s parents claim there was a ransom note sent to them eight hours before the body was found. This ransom note demanded a sum of $118,000 in exchange for the girl’s return. Suspicion remained on the parents until John Mark Karr admitted that he was the killer. This happened just after Ramsey’s mother had died. However, Karr was later released when DNA tests confirmed he was not at the crime scene. The parents were also cleared of any wrongdoing as the prosecutor on the case claims the DNA evidence points to there being an unidentified and unexplained third party that is responsible. This third party has still not been brought to justice.[8]

9. Marilyn Monroe

Mysterious Hollywood Deaths Marilyn Monroe

Marilyn Monroe is remembered for a lot of things. Her illustrious film career, her singing Happy Birthday to John F. Kennedy, and her mysterious death in 1962. She slipped into a coma after an apparent drug overdose. This was initially ruled a suicide, but those facts don’t really lineup when one looks at the big picture. Many items were allegedly removed from her home which led to speculation about the famous actress’s death being the result of foul play as opposed to the most beautiful celebrity in showbiz who was loved by so many to kill herself.

With this one there is no shortage of conspiracy theories for what happened to Ms. Monroe. Some believe the Mafia may have been behind her death in retaliation for John and Robert Kennedy. Allegedly the two Kennedy boys had affairs with the actress. Even John and Robert have been suspected in her death. It has also been suspected that she somehow was a National Security risk because of her intimate relationship with the president and the last thing she saw was a needle going through her eye from a CIA spook. Now, these are all just theories, and the world may never know what happened to the very beautiful and talented Marilyn Monroe.[9]

10. William Desmond Taylor

William Desmond Taylor

William Desmond Taylor is an interesting character. He abandoned his wife and family in 1908 and changed his name, which was Peter Tanner, to William Desmond Taylor. Years later he resurfaced in Hollywood where he directed over 60 films. At one point he was even the president of the Motion Picture Directors Association.

In 1922 Taylor was found dead in his home in Hollywood with a gunshot wound on his back. A dark-haired man was seen by witnesses leaving Taylor’s house, but no arrests were ever made. It was revealed at one point that Taylor had reported actress Mabel Nomad’s cocaine dealer to the authorities. His death was theorized to be some sort of retaliation. Taylor’s murder still has not been solved to this day.[10]